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Chronic pulmonary infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common and serious problem in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The P. aeruginosa isolates from these patients typically have a mucoid colony morphology due to overproduction of the exopolysaccharide alginate, which contributes to the persistence of the organisms in the CF lung. Most of the(More)
The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes chronic biofilm infections in cystic fibrosis patients. During colonization of the lung, P. aeruginosa converts to a mucoid phenotype characterized by overproduction of the exopolysaccharide alginate. Here we show that AlgK, a protein essential for production of high molecular weight alginate, is an(More)
The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa secretes a capsule-like polysaccharide called alginate that is important for evasion of host defenses, especially during chronic pulmonary disease of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Most proteins for alginate biosynthesis are encoded by the 12-gene algD operon. Interestingly, this operon also encodes(More)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains causing chronic pulmonary infections in cystic fibrosis patients produce high levels of alginate, an exopolysaccharide that confers a mucoid phenotype. Alginate is a linear polymer of d-mannuronate (M) and variable amounts of its C-5-epimer, l-guluronate (G). AlgG is a periplasmic C-5-epimerase that converts poly d-mannuronate(More)
Mucoid strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa that overproduce alginate are associated with chronic pulmonary disease (e.g. cystic fibrosis). Mutants defective in one of several periplasmic proteins (AlgKGX) for alginate secretion release alginate fragments due to the activity of an alginate lyase (AlgL) in the periplasm, which cleaves the newly formed polymers.(More)
Autotransporters are an extensive family of large secreted virulence-associated proteins of gram-negative bacteria. Secretion of such large proteins poses unique challenges to bacteria. We demonstrate that autotransporters from a wide variety of rod-shaped pathogens, including IcsA and SepA of Shigella flexneri, AIDA-I of diffusely adherent Escherichia(More)
Bacterial alginates are produced as 1-4-linked beta-D-mannuronan, followed by epimerization of some of the mannuronic acid residues to alpha-L-guluronic acid. Here we report the isolation of four different epimerization-defective point mutants of the periplasmic Pseudomonas fluorescens mannuronan C-5-epimerase AlgG. All mutations affected amino acids(More)
IcsA is an outer membrane protein in the autotransporter family that is required for Shigella flexneri pathogenesis. Following its secretion through the Sec translocon, IcsA is incorporated into the outer membrane in a process that depends on YaeT, a component of an outer membrane beta-barrel insertion machinery. We investigated the role of the periplasmic(More)
hilA encodes an activator of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium virulence genes and is transcriptionally modulated by environmental conditions. We show that H-NS represses hilA under low-osmolarity conditions. H-NS, HU, and Fis also appear to affect the derepression of hilA by HilD. Modulation of hilA by counteracting repressing and derepressing(More)
Autotransporters constitute the largest group of secreted proteins in gram-negative bacteria. Autotransporter secretion involves the insertion of a carboxy-terminal beta barrel into and the translocation of an amino-terminal domain across the outer membrane. Here, we demonstrate that secretion of autotransporters from several organisms requires the outer(More)