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Exposure assessment, a component of risk assessment, links sources of pollution with health effects. Exposure models are scientific tools used to gain insights into the processes affecting exposure assessment. The purpose of this paper is to review the process and methodology of estimating inhalation exposure to particulate matter (PM) using various types(More)
The purpose of this database is to provide the scientific community with a concise overview of measured household indoor air pollution levels in about 250 communities extracted from 71 studies published between 1968 and 2002. This working database is structured so that the independent researcher can extract and analyze findings within and across studies.(More)
Indoor air pollution is potentially a very serious environmental and public health problem in India. In poor communities, with the continuing trend in biofuel combustion coupled with deteriorating housing conditions, the problem will remain for some time to come. While to some extent the problem has been studied in rural areas, there is a dearth of reliable(More)
In this manuscript we describe various alternative tools to estimate exposure to particles. We stress methods that are cost effective and widely available to those throughout the world. The use of surrogate measures arises from the need to estimate exposures of large populations where individual measurements are not feasible, for predictive modeling or to(More)
In this chapter, the concept of exposure assessment and its evolution is introduced, and evaluated by critically appraising the pertinent literature as it applies to exposures to Particulate Matter (PM). Exposure measurement or estimation methodologies and models are reviewed. Three exposure/measurement methodologies are assessed. Estimation methods focus(More)
Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N1 poses severe threats to both animals and humans. Investigating where, when and why the disease occurs is important to help animal health authorities develop effective control policies. This study takes into account spatial and temporal occurrence of HPAI H5N1 in the Red River Delta of Vietnam. A(More)
Building on a series of ground breaking reviews that first defined and drew attention to emerging infectious diseases (EID), the 'convergence model' was proposed to explain the multifactorial causality of disease emergence. The model broadly hypothesizes disease emergence is driven by the co-incidence of genetic, physical environmental, ecological, and(More)
The purpose of this study was to study the spatial patterns of ambient air quality in Delhi in the absence of extensive datasets needed for space-time modeling. A spatial classification was attempted on the basis of ambient air quality data of nine years (1998 is latest year for which published data were available) for three criteria pollutants--nitrogen(More)
This research examined how perceptions of outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N1 in poultry are related to urbanization. Via in-depth interviews with village leaders, household farmers, and large farm operators in modern, transitional, and traditional communes in the north of Vietnam, we explored behaviors, attitudes, cultural(More)
This paper reviews the uses of particulate exposure estimates for science and policy. We propose a set of normative factors to guide the selection and application of various approaches for exposure assessment. For exposure estimates intended for use in support of the development or air pollution regulations or selection of control strategies, the proposed(More)