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Identification and qualitative comparison of sensitivity analysis methods that have been used across various disciplines, and that merit consideration for application to food-safety risk assessment models, are presented in this article. Sensitivity analysis can help in identifying critical control points, prioritizing additional data collection or research,(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the effectiveness of a sanitation campaign that combines 'shaming' (i.e. emotional motivators) with subsidies for poor households in rural Orissa, an Indian state with a disproportionately high share of India's child mortality. METHODS Using a cluster-randomized design, we selected 20 treatment and 20 control villages in the coastal(More)
BACKGROUND Poor sanitation is thought to be a major cause of enteric infections among young children. However, there are no previously published randomized trials to measure the health impacts of large-scale sanitation programs. India's Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) is one such program that seeks to end the practice of open defecation by changing social(More)
Meta-analysis provides a structured method for combining results from several studies and accounting for and differentiating between study variables. Numerous food safety consumer research studies often focus on specific behaviors among different subpopulations but fail to provide a holistic picture of consumer behavior. Combining information from several(More)
Risk communication and consumer education to promote safer handling of food can be the best way of managing the risk of foodborne illness at the consumer end of the food chain. Thus, an understanding of the overall status of food handling knowledge and practices is needed. Although traditional qualitative reviews can be used for combining information from(More)
Over 5 billion people worldwide are exposed to unsafe water. Given the obstacles to ensuring sustainable improvements in water supply infrastructure and the unhygienic handling of water after collection, household water treatment and storage (HWTS) products have been viewed as important mechanisms for increasing access to safe water. Although studies have(More)
Sustainable and equitable access to safe water and adequate sanitation are widely acknowledged as vital, yet neglected, development goals. Water supply and sanitation (WSS) policies are justified because of the usual efficiency criteria, but also major equity concerns. Yet, to date there are few scientific impact evaluations showing that WSS policies are(More)
Sensitivity analysis (SA) methods are a valuable tool for identifying critical control points (CCPs), which is one of the important steps in the hazard analysis and CCP approach that is used to ensure safe food. There are many SA methods used across various disciplines. Furthermore, food safety process risk models pose challenges because they often are(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate and quantify the economic benefits attributable to improvements in water supply and sanitation in rural India. METHODS We combined propensity-score "pre-matching" and rich pre-post panel data on 9500 households in 242 villages located in four geographically different districts to estimate the economic benefits of a large-scale(More)
Among the third of the world's population that continues to use nature's " Open Sky Latrines, " improved sanitation facilities represent an impure public good. For both epidemiological and social reasons, an individual household's payoff to latrine use will depend on the sanitation decisions of other households in the village. Data from a randomized(More)