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OBJECTIVE The transmembrane receptor family of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) may play a role in initiating early inflammatory and functional responses to danger signals arising from ischemia-reperfusion and inflammatory stimuli. We determined whether Toll-like receptors are expressed in cardiac tissue and whether stimulation with cognate ligands would result(More)
Stimulation of toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) by CpG-C containing oligonucleotides attenuates ischemic injury in the brain and liver. In this study, we investigate whether any of the three classes of CpG (A, B, or C) mitigate ischemia-induced cardiac dysfunction. We measured left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in C57BL/6 mice using transthoracic(More)
BACKGROUND Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are expressed on cardiomyocytes and recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Whether endogenous molecules produced by tissue injury (damage associated molecular patterns, DAMPs) can induce cardiomyocyte inflammation via TLR signalling pathways and/or reduce cardiomyocyte contractility is unknown. METHODS AND(More)
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