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The inner ear is one of the most complex and detailed organs in the vertebrate body and provides us with the priceless ability to hear and perceive linear and angular acceleration (hence maintain balance). The development and morphogenesis of the inner ear from an ectodermal thickening into distinct auditory and vestibular components depends upon precise(More)
The risk of Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is ∼15/100 000 live births per newborn but has been reported to show significant inter-individual variation from the effects of seven common susceptibility alleles at the RET, SEMA3 and NRG1 loci. We show, by analyses of these variants in 997 samples from 376 HSCR families of European ancestry, that significant(More)
BACKGROUND Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is a neurocristopathy characterized by absence of intramural ganglion cells along variable lengths of the gastrointestinal tract in neonates. Three polymorphisms, rs2435357, within a conserved transcriptional enhancer of RET, and, rs7835688 and rs16879552, within intron 1 of NRG1, have been shown to be associated with(More)
BACKGROUND Gastroschisis is a developmental disorder involving the extrusion of fetal intestines through a defect in the abdominal wall. The mechanism is presumed to be a dual vascular/thrombotic pathogenesis, where normal right umbilical vein involution forms a possible site for thrombosis adjacent to the umbilical ring. PURPOSE The aim of this study was(More)
QT interval variation is assumed to arise from variation in repolarization as evidenced from rare Na- and K-channel mutations in Mendelian QT prolongation syndromes. However, in the general population, common noncoding variants at a chromosome 1q locus are the most common genetic regulators of QT interval variation. In this study, we use multiple human(More)
Common sequence variants in cis-regulatory elements (CREs) are suspected etiological causes of complex disorders. We previously identified an intronic enhancer variant in the RET gene disrupting SOX10 binding and increasing Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) risk 4-fold. We now show that two other functionally independent CRE variants, one binding Gata2 and the(More)
Vertebrate organogenesis is a highly complex process involving sequential cascades of transcription factor activation or repression. Interestingly a single developmental control gene can occasionally be essential for the morphogenesis and differentiation of tissues and organs arising from vastly disparate embryological lineages. Here we elucidated the role(More)
BACKGROUND Identifying DNA sequences (enhancers) that direct the precise spatial and temporal expression of developmental control genes remains a significant challenge in the annotation of vertebrate genomes. Locating these sequences, which in many cases lie at a great distance from the transcription start site, has been a major obstacle in deciphering gene(More)
Skeletogenesis is a complex multi-step process, which involves many genes and pathways. The tightly regulated interplay between these genes in these pathways ensures a correct and timely organogenesis and it is imperative that we have a fair understanding of the major genes and gene families involved in the process. This review aims to give a deeper insight(More)
Sensorineural hearing loss is one of the most common disabilities in humans. It is estimated that about 278 million people worldwide have slight to extreme hearing loss in both ears, which results in an economic loss for the country and personal loss for the individual. It is thus critical to have a deeper understanding of the causes for hearing loss to(More)