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The effects of changing climate on ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fine roots were studied in northern Sweden by manipulating soil temperature for 14 years and/or by fertilizing for 22 years. Fine root biomass, necromass, EcM root tip biomass, morphology and number as well as mycelia production were determined from soil cores and mesh bags. The fine root biomass and(More)
Massive levels of integration are making modern multicore chips all pervasive in several domains. High performance, robustness, and energy-efficiency are crucial for the widespread adoption of such platforms. Networks-on-Chip (NoCs) have emerged as communication backbones to enable a high degree of integration in multicore Systems-on-Chip (SoCs). Despite(More)
The main objectives of this study were to determine how the carbon age of fine root cellulose varies between stands, tree species, root diameter and soil depth. In addition, we also compared the carbon age of fine roots from soil cores of this study with reported values from the roots of the same diameter classes of ingrowth cores on the same sites. We used(More)
—Design techniques for a load-independent low-power low-phase-noise CMOS LC direct bulk-coupled quadrature voltage-controlled oscillator (DBC-QVCO) is presented in this paper. A capacitor tapping technique is used to lower the phase noise and achieve load-independent frequency of oscillation. Class-C operation is used to further reduce the phase noise and(More)
— The Network-on-Chip (NoC) is an enabling technology to integrate large numbers of embedded cores on a single die. The existing methods of implementing a NoC with planar metal interconnects are deficient due to high latency and significant power consumption arising out of multi-hop links used in data exchange. To address these problems, we propose design(More)
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