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HIV infection of the central nervous system leads to HIV-associated dementia (HAD) in a substantial subset of infected individuals. The pathogenesis of neuronal dysfunction in HAD is not well understood, but previous studies have demonstrated evidence for activation of apoptotic pathways. The tumor suppressor transcription factor p53 is an apical mediator(More)
The hereditary ataxias are a highly heterogeneous group of disorders phenotypically characterized by gait ataxia, incoordination of eye movements, speech, and hand movements, and usually associated with atrophy of the cerebellum. There are more than 35 autosomal dominant types frequently termed spinocerebellar ataxia and typically having adult onset. The(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe the Alzheimer disease (AD)-like clinical and pathological features, including marked neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) pathology, of a familial prion disease due to a rare nonsense mutation of the prion gene (PRNP). METHODS Longitudinal clinical assessments were available for the proband and her mother. After death, both underwent(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) invades the central nervous system early in the course of infection and establishes a protected viral reservoir. However, neurocognitive consequences of HIV infection, known collectively as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), develop in only a small portion of infected patients. The precise mechanisms of(More)
Mutations in presenilin 2 are rare causes of early onset familial Alzheimer's disease. Eighteen presenilin 2 mutations have been reported, although not all have been confirmed pathogenic. Much remains to be learned about the range of phenotypes associated with these mutations. We have analysed our unique collection of 146 affected cases in 11 Volga German(More)
Endophilin-B1, also known as Bax-interacting factor 1 (Bif-1, and encoded by SH3GLB1), is a multifunctional protein involved in apoptosis, autophagy and mitochondrial function. We recently described a unique neuroprotective role for neuron-specific alternatively spliced isoforms of endophilin-B1. To examine whether endophilin-B1-mediated neuroprotection(More)
IMPORTANCE The R47H variant in the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 gene (TREM2), a modulator of the immune response of microglia, is a strong genetic risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD) and possibly other neurodegenerative disorders. OBJECTIVE To investigate a large family with late-onset AD (LOAD), in which R47H cosegregated with 75%(More)
Neuroinflammation occurs in acute and chronic CNS injury, including stroke, traumatic brain injury, and neurodegenerative diseases. Microglia are specialized resident myeloid cells that mediate CNS innate immune responses. Disease-relevant stimuli, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), can influence microglia activation. Previously, we observed that p53, a(More)
Presenilin 1 (PS1) and Presenilin 2 (PS2) are the enzymatic component of the γ-secretase complex that cleaves amyloid precursor protein (APP) to release amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide. PS deficiency in mice results in neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in the absence of accumulated Aβ. We hypothesize that PS influences neuroinflammation through its(More)