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HIV infection of the central nervous system leads to HIV-associated dementia (HAD) in a substantial subset of infected individuals. The pathogenesis of neuronal dysfunction in HAD is not well understood, but previous studies have demonstrated evidence for activation of apoptotic pathways. The tumor suppressor transcription factor p53 is an apical mediator(More)
Mutations in presenilin 2 are rare causes of early onset familial Alzheimer's disease. Eighteen presenilin 2 mutations have been reported, although not all have been confirmed pathogenic. Much remains to be learned about the range of phenotypes associated with these mutations. We have analysed our unique collection of 146 affected cases in 11 Volga German(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe the Alzheimer disease (AD)-like clinical and pathological features, including marked neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) pathology, of a familial prion disease due to a rare nonsense mutation of the prion gene (PRNP). METHODS Longitudinal clinical assessments were available for the proband and her mother. After death, both underwent(More)
The hereditary ataxias are a highly heterogeneous group of disorders phenotypically characterized by gait ataxia, incoordination of eye movements, speech, and hand movements, and usually associated with atrophy of the cerebellum. There are more than 35 autosomal dominant types frequently termed spinocerebellar ataxia and typically having adult onset. The(More)
IMPORTANCE The R47H variant in the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 gene (TREM2), a modulator of the immune response of microglia, is a strong genetic risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD) and possibly other neurodegenerative disorders. OBJECTIVE To investigate a large family with late-onset AD (LOAD), in which R47H cosegregated with 75%(More)
The nature and role of glycosylation in AT1 angiotensin receptor (AT1-R) function were investigated by expressing glycosylation-deficient influenza hemagglutinin (HA) epitope-tagged rat AT1a-Rs (HA-AT1a-Rs) in COS-7 cells. All three asparagine residues (Asn4, Asn176, Asn188) contained within consensus sites for N-linked glycosylation could be glycosylated(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) invades the central nervous system early in the course of infection and establishes a protected viral reservoir. However, neurocognitive consequences of HIV infection, known collectively as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), develop in only a small portion of infected patients. The precise mechanisms of(More)
HIV-associated dementia (HAD) is a chronic neuroinflammatory disease that remains an important clinical problem without available rational treatment. As HIV does not infect neurons, the pathogenesis of HAD is thought to be secondary to the impact of infected leukocytes, including parenchymal microglia, which can secrete inflammatory mediators and viral(More)
Presenilin 1 (PS1) and Presenilin 2 (PS2) are the enzymatic component of the γ-secretase complex that cleaves amyloid precursor protein (APP) to release amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide. PS deficiency in mice results in neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in the absence of accumulated Aβ. We hypothesize that PS influences neuroinflammation through its(More)