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We examined the physiological and psychological effects of nanomolar amounts of steroids applied directly under the nose (Delta4,16-androstadien-3-one and 1,3,5,(10),16-estratetraen-3-ol). These potential human chemosignals were not consciously discernible in a strong-odor carrier (clove oil and propylene glycol). In a double-blind, within-subject,(More)
We tested the hypothesis that isolated steroids, claimed to act like pheromones, affect human psychological state or mood. In the first experiment, we established that two steroids, Delta4, 16-androstadien-3-one and 1,3,5(10)16-estratetraen-3-ol, modulated emotional states within 6 min of exposure. In men and women, neither steroid had specific effects on(More)
The oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) has been studied in autism because of the role of oxytocin (OT) in social cognition. Linkage has also been demonstrated to the region of OXTR in a large sample. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a haplotype constructed from them in OXTR have been associated with autism in the Chinese Han population. We tested(More)
The human chemosignal, Delta 4,16-androstadien-3-one modulates psychological state without being consciously discernible as an odor. This study demonstrates that Delta 4,16-androstadien-3-one (androstadienone) alters cerebral glucose utilization both in subcortical regions and in areas of the neocortex not exclusively associated with olfaction. These widely(More)
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by-nc/2.5), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. While it is apparent that rare variation can play an(More)
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a phenotypically and etiologically heterogeneous set of disorders that include obsessive-compulsive behaviors (OCB) that partially overlap with symptoms associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The OCB seen in ASD vary depending on the individual's mental and chronological age as well as the etiology of their(More)
Previously, we have shown that delta4,16-androstadien-3-one modulates psychological state, reducing negative mood and increasing positive mood (Jacob and McClintock, 2000; Jacob et al., 2001a). In order to determine whether similar musky compounds also produce these effects, we compared the effects of androstadienone to those of androstenol and muscone,(More)
Human pheromones, a type of social chemosignal, modulate endocrine function by regulating the timing of ovulation. In animals, pheromones not only regulate ovulation but also female reproductive motivation and behavior. There is no extant evidence that humans produce social chemosignals that affect human sexual motivation or reproductive behavior as occurs(More)
BACKGROUND There has been increasing interest in oxytocin (peptide: OT, gene: OXT) as a treatment pathway for neurodevelopmental disorders such as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Neurodevelopmental disorders affect functional, social, and intellectual abilities. With advances in molecular biology, research has connected multiple gene regions to the clinical(More)
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a source of unique individual odors that influence individual recognition, mating preferences, nesting behavior and selective block of pregnancy in animals. Such phenomena have been difficult to study in humans, because the human leukocyte antigen (HLA, human MHC) loci are the most polymorphic loci in the human(More)