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The blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast mechanism can be modeled as a complex interplay between CBF, cerebral blood volume (CBV), and CMRO2. Positive BOLD signal changes are presumably caused by CBF changes in excess of increases in CMRO2. Because this uncoupling between CBF and CMRO2 may not always be present, the magnitude of BOLD changes(More)
The nature of vascular contribution to blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) contrast used in functional MRI (fMRI) is poorly understood. To investigate vascular contributions at an ultrahigh magnetic field of 9.4 T, diffusion-weighted fMRI techniques were used in a rat forepaw stimulation model. Tissue and blood T(2) values were measured to optimize the(More)
Measurement of cerebral arterial and venous blood volumes during increased cerebral blood flow can provide important information regarding hemodynamic regulation under normal, pathological, and neuronally active conditions. In particular, the change in venous blood volume induced by neural activity is one critical component of the blood oxygenation(More)
Spatial specificities of the calcium-dependent synaptic activity, hemodynamic-based blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) fMRI were quantitatively compared in the same animals. Calcium-dependent synaptic activity was imaged by exploiting the manganese ion (Mn++) as a calcium analog and an MRI contrast agent at 9.4 T.(More)
The close correspondence between neural activity in the brain and cerebral blood flow (CBF) forms the basis for modern functional neuroimaging methods. Yet, the temporal characteristics of hemodynamic changes induced by neuronal activity are not well understood. Recent optical imaging observations of the time course of deoxyhemoglobin (HbR) and(More)
In the United States, elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity in the absence of viral hepatitis or excessive alcohol consumption is most commonly attributed to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD is related to predictors of coronary heart disease (CHD) such as insulin resistance and central obesity. We examined the association(More)
Glucose is the major substrate that sustains normal brain function. When the brain glucose concentration approaches zero, glucose transport across the blood-brain barrier becomes rate limiting for metabolism during, for example, increased metabolic activity and hypoglycemia. Steady-state brain glucose concentrations in alpha-chloralose anesthetized rats(More)
We report the discovery, tissue distribution and pharmacological characterization of a novel receptor, which we have named H4. Like the three histamine receptors reported previously (H1, H2, and H3), the H4 receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor and is most closely related to the H3 receptor, sharing 58% identity in the transmembrane regions. The gene(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Type 2 diabetes and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are associated with insulin resistance and disordered cholesterol homeostasis. We investigated the basis for hepatic cholesterol accumulation with insulin resistance and its relevance to the pathogenesis of NASH. METHODS Alms1 mutant (foz/foz) and wild-type NOD.B10 mice were fed(More)
Dopamine D2 receptors exist as dimers in whole cell lysate, crude membranes prepared from human caudate, and following solubilization and immunoprecipitation of the receptor from these tissues. Photoaffinity labelling experiments confirmed that D2 receptors exist either as monomers that are selective targets for spiperone or as dimers that are targets for(More)