Suling Zhai

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Lyophilization is the most popular method for achieving improved stability of labile biopharmaceuticals, but a significant fraction of product activity can be lost during processing due to stresses that occur in both the freezing and the drying stages. The effect of the freezing rate on the recovery of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) infectivity in the(More)
The structural integrity of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) during freezing, thawing, and lyophilization has been studied using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Viral particles should be thawed quickly from -80 to 37 degrees C to avoid artifacts of thawing. To avoid freezing damage, the virus should be rapidly frozen (>20 K s(-1)) rather than(More)
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