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OBJECTIVE Spinal reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory reflexes of ankle extensor and flexor muscles were investigated in ambulatory participants with chronic central nervous system (CNS) lesions causing foot drop as a function of time after lesion and stimulator use. METHODS Thirty-nine participants with progressive (eg, secondary progressive MS) and 36(More)
OBJECTIVES To test the efficacy and acceptance of a footdrop stimulator controlled by a tilt sensor. METHODS A nonrandomized, test-retest study of 26 subjects with footdrop of more than 1 year's duration, resulting from various central nervous system disorders, was performed in 4 centers for at least 3 months. Speed of walking in a straight line, speed(More)
BACKGROUND Voluntary contractions (VOL), functional electrical stimulation (FES), and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can facilitate corticospinal connections. OBJECTIVE To find the best methods for increasing corticospinal excitability by testing eight combinations: (1) VOL, (2) FES, (3) FES + VOL, (4) TMS, (5) TMS + VOL, (6) paired associative(More)
To compare various novel and conventional systems for locomotion, a 25-year-old man was studied with motor complete spinal cord injury at the T4/5 level. He used various devices in the community, and changes in speed, physiological cost index (PCI), and oxygen consumption were measured periodically. Speed was fastest with a conventional manual wheelchair(More)
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