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Viruses such as HIV, influenza, picornavirus and others are known stimulators of apoptosis. This individual cellular elimination is a preferential host defense in regenerative tissues. In contrast, if this death occurred in nonregenerating cells, such as neurons of the central nervous system, may result in disease. The target cell for rabies virus is the(More)
Development of neurologic complications after Semple rabies vaccine is closely linked to development of antibody to myelin basic protein (MBP). The portions of MBP against which the antibodies are directed were analyzed by enzyme immunoassay in sera and cerebrospinal fluid from 27 patients with vaccine complications. Most of the antibody was directed to(More)
The immunopathogenesis of dengue haemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome is thought to be mediated by a variety of host factors. Enhancing antibodies are one of the key regulating molecules. These antibodies, via antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection, are able to facilitate dengue virus (DENV) growth in Fc-bearing host cells. The mechanism(More)
BACKGROUND The phenomenon of antibody dependent enhancement as a major determinant that exacerbates disease severity in DENV infections is well accepted. While the detailed mechanism of antibody enhanced disease severity is unclear, evidence suggests that it is associated with both increased DENV infectivity and suppression of the type I IFN and(More)
Sindbis virus is an alphavirus that causes encephalitis in mice. The primary target cells for central nervous system infection are neurons. The outcome of neuronal infection is dependent on the age of the mouse at the time of infection (maturity of the neuron) and the strain of virus used for infection (virulence of the virus). Sindbis virus causes neuronal(More)
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a recently re-emerged public health problem in many countries bordering the Indian Ocean and elsewhere. Chikungunya fever is a relatively self limiting febrile disease, but the consequences of chikungunya fever can include a long lasting, debilitating arthralgia, and occasional neurological involvement has been reported.(More)
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito borne alphavirus that has caused large scale epidemics in the countries around the Indian Ocean, as well as leading to autochthonous transmission in some European countries. The transmission of the disease has been driven by the emergence of an African lineage of CHIKV with enhanced transmission and(More)
Alphavirus nsP2 proteins are multifunctional and essential for viral replication. The protease role of nsP2 is critical for virus replication as only the virus protease activity is used for processing of the viral non-structural polypeptide. Chikungunya virus is an emerging disease problem that is becoming a world-wide health issue. We have generated(More)
Virus evolution facilitates the emergence of viruses with unpredictable impacts on human health. This study investigated intra-host variations of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the haemagglutinin (HA) gene of the avian H5N1 viruses obtained from the 2004 and 2005 epidemics. The results showed that the mutation frequency of the RBD ranged from 0.3 to(More)
Dengue viruses (DENVs) are among the most rapidly and efficiently spreading arboviruses. WHO recently estimated that about half of the world's population is now at risk for DENV infection. There is no specific treatment or vaccine available to treat or prevent DENV infections. Here, we report the development of a novel dengue nanovaccine (DNV) composed of(More)