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A pathophysiological mechanism of cerebral damage and impairment of neuronal function during rabies virus infection was examined. Synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) and expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene are strongly upregulated during rabies virus infection. Treatment of rabies virus-infected mice with a selective inhibitor of iNOS,(More)
Viruses such as HIV, influenza, picornavirus and others are known stimulators of apoptosis. This individual cellular elimination is a preferential host defense in regenerative tissues. In contrast, if this death occurred in nonregenerating cells, such as neurons of the central nervous system, may result in disease. The target cell for rabies virus is the(More)
BACKGROUND Dengue virus infection causes an array of symptoms ranging from dengue fever (DF) to dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). The pathophysiological processes behind these 2 clinical manifestations are unclear. METHOD In the present study, genomewide transcriptomes of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) collected from children with acute-phase DF(More)
Dengue represents a major public health problem in Thailand, with all four viral serotypes co-circulating. Dengue virus serotype 4 (DENV-4) is the least frequently sampled serotype, although one that is often associated with hemorrhagic fever during secondary infection. To determine the evolutionary forces shaping the genetic diversity of DENV-4, and(More)
The immunopathogenesis of dengue haemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome is thought to be mediated by a variety of host factors. Enhancing antibodies are one of the key regulating molecules. These antibodies, via antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection, are able to facilitate dengue virus (DENV) growth in Fc-bearing host cells. The mechanism(More)
Alphaviruses infect neurons in the brain and spinal cord and cause acute encephalomyelitis in a variety of mammals. The outcome of infection is determined by whether the neurons survive infection and this, in turn, is determined by the virulence of the virus and the age of the host at the time of infection. We have been studying Sindbis virus (SV) infection(More)
Histological, cytochemical and ultrastructural changes in giant black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon were investigated at various time intervals after injection with yellow head virus (YHV). Hemocytes, lymphoid organs (LO) and gills were the main focus of the study. After injection with YHV, onset of mortality varied from 36 h onward. By normal hematoxylin(More)
Avian influenza viruses are a possible threat to human health as they may cause an influenza pandemic. Asian open-bill storks are migratory birds that brought H5N1 viruses into Thailand during the 2004-2005 epidemic. However, to date, there are no reports of direct transmission of stork-derived H5N1 viruses to Thais. Therefore, we questioned whether or not(More)
A wide range of microorganisms can replicate in macrophages, and cell entry of these pathogens via non-neutralising IgG antibody complexes can result in increased intracellular infection through idiosyncratic Fcγ-receptor signalling. The activation of Fcγ receptors usually leads to phagocytosis. Paradoxically, the ligation of monocyte or macrophage Fcγ(More)
We have found that dengue virus (DENV) not only uses preexisting enhancing antibodies to promote its entry into Fc receptor-bearing cells but also exploits enhancing antibodies for intracellular immune evasion through 2 mechanisms. In the first mechanism, entry of DENV-antibody complexes into human monocytic cells activates negative regulators,(More)