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Avian influenza viruses are a possible threat to human health as they may cause an influenza pandemic. Asian open-bill storks are migratory birds that brought H5N1 viruses into Thailand during the 2004-2005 epidemic. However, to date, there are no reports of direct transmission of stork-derived H5N1 viruses to Thais. Therefore, we questioned whether or not(More)
Mutants of human adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) lacking early region 4 (E4) display a complex phenotype that includes a delay in the onset of viral DNA replication in low-multiplicity infections. Studies of viral DNA replication in vitro have not revealed a requirement for E4 products in DNA synthesis and, for most E4 mutants, defects in DNA replication are not(More)
Viruses such as HIV, influenza, picornavirus and others are known stimulators of apoptosis. This individual cellular elimination is a preferential host defense in regenerative tissues. In contrast, if this death occurred in nonregenerating cells, such as neurons of the central nervous system, may result in disease. The target cell for rabies virus is the(More)
A wide range of microorganisms can replicate in macrophages, and cell entry of these pathogens via non-neutralising IgG antibody complexes can result in increased intracellular infection through idiosyncratic Fcγ-receptor signalling. The activation of Fcγ receptors usually leads to phagocytosis. Paradoxically, the ligation of monocyte or macrophage Fcγ(More)
We have found that dengue virus (DENV) not only uses preexisting enhancing antibodies to promote its entry into Fc receptor-bearing cells but also exploits enhancing antibodies for intracellular immune evasion through 2 mechanisms. In the first mechanism, entry of DENV-antibody complexes into human monocytic cells activates negative regulators,(More)
Preexisting antibodies may enhance viral infections. In dengue, nonneutralizing antibodies raised by natural infection with one of four dengue viruses (DENVs) may enhance infection with a different virus by a process we term "intrinsic antibody-dependent enhancement" (iADE). In addition, nonprotective antibodies raised by formalin-inactivated respiratory(More)
The isolation and sequence comparison of avirulent and neurovirulent strains of polio virus, alpha virus, herpes virus, immunodeficiency virus, and other viruses have identified genetic changes that are required to cause disease in the nervous system. The molecular mechanisms by which these genetic changes result in neurovirulence are unknown. An avirulent(More)
BACKGROUND Dengue virus infection causes an array of symptoms ranging from dengue fever (DF) to dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). The pathophysiological processes behind these 2 clinical manifestations are unclear. METHOD In the present study, genomewide transcriptomes of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) collected from children with acute-phase DF(More)
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has recently re-emerged causing millions of infections in countries around the Indian Ocean. While CHIKV has a broad host cell range and productively infects a number of different cell types, macrophages have been identified as a potential viral reservoir serving to increase the duration of symptoms. To date no CHIKV interacting(More)
Alphaviruses replicate in a wide variety of cells in vitro. The prototype alphavirus, Sindbis virus, causes an age-dependent encephalitis in mice and serves as an important model system for the study of alphavirus neurovirulence. To begin to understand the role of cellular virus receptors in the pathogenesis of Sindbis virus infection, we developed an(More)