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A recent report revealed that phosphoinositide-3-kinase, catalytic, alpha (PIK3CA) gene is somatically mutated in several types of human cancer, suggesting the mutated PIK3CA gene as an oncogene in human cancers. However, because the previous report focused the mutational search primarily on colon cancers, the data on PIK3CA mutations in other types of(More)
Methylation events play a critical role in various cellular processes including regulation of gene transcription and proliferation. Recently, RUNX3 gene, one of TGF-beta-Smads signaling transduction pathway genes, showed strong tumor-suppressor activity by regulation of epithelial proliferation and apoptosis. To elucidate the potential etiological role of(More)
The EGFR family consists of 4 receptor tyrosine kinases, EGFR (ERBB1), ERBB2 (HER2), ERBB3 (HER3) and ERBB4 (HER4). Recent reports revealed that the kinase domains of both EGFR (ERBB1) and ERBB2 gene were somatically mutated in human cancers, raising the possibility that the other ERBB members possess somatic mutations in human cancers. Here, we performed(More)
Several lines of evidence indicate that deregulation of apoptosis is involved in the mechanisms of cancer development. Caspase-8 activation plays a central role in the initiation phase of apoptosis. The aim of this study was to explore the possibility that genetic alteration of CASPASE-8 gene is involved in the development of human cancers, including(More)
Activating mutations of KIT and platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) are known to be alternative and mutually exclusive genetic events in the development of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). We examined the effect of the mutations of these two genes on the gene expression profile of 22 GISTs using the oligonucleotide microarray.(More)
PURPOSE Recent reports revealed that the kinase domain of the ERBB2 gene is somatically mutated in lung adenocarcinoma, suggesting the mutated ERBB2 gene as an oncogene in human cancers. However, because previous reports focused the mutational search of ERBB2 primarily on lung cancers, the data on ERBB2 mutations in other types of human cancers have been(More)
BACKGROUND Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a well-known cancer involving the Wnt pathway in its carcinogenesis. AIMS However, it is not clear whether these genetic changes are early genetic events in hepatocarcinogenesis or not. METHOD In this study, we performed mutational analysis of the beta-catenin and AXIN I genes, and immunohistochemistry for(More)
Autotaxin (ATX) is an exoenzyme that potently induces tumor cell motility, and enhances experimental metastasis and angiogenesis. ATX was shown recently to be identical to serum lysophospholipase D activity, producing lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) from lyso-glycerophospholipids. LPA, itself a strong chemoattractant for tumor cells, may mediate the actions of(More)
Aberrant regulation of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) plays a pivotal role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but, the underlying mechanism leading to HDAC2 overexpression is not well understood. We performed microRNA (miRNA) profiling analysis in a subset of HCCs, and identified four down-regulated miRNAs that may target HDAC2 in HCC.(More)
PURPOSE Recently, the kinase domain mutations of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene have been identified in non-small-cell lung cancer, and these mutations have been related to the clinical response to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib. Gefitinib treatment has also shown clinical benefits in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck(More)