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Osteopontin (OPN, SPP1) is a secretory extracellular matrix protein that has been implicated in cancer-associated mechanisms such as metastasis, invasion and angiogenesis. Three OPN isoforms (OPN-a, -b and -c) derived from alternative splicing are known to exist, but their functional specificity remains unclear. Here, we found that the expression profile of(More)
APETALA1 (AP1) of Arabidopsis thaliana is a transcription factor controlling flower development. AP1 is a member of the MADS (MCM1, AGAMOUS, DEFICIENS, SRF) superfamily, which plays important roles in differentiation in plants and animals. MADS domains, which function most importantly in DNA binding, are found in all major eukaryotic kingdoms. In plants,(More)
Hypoxic damage to the prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been implicated in the frontal lobe dysfunction found in various neuropsychiatric disorders. The underlying subcortical mechanisms, however, have not been well explored. In this study, we induced a PFC-specific hypoxia-like damage by cobalt-wire implantation to demonstrate that the role of the mediodorsal(More)
BioSilico is a web-based database system that facilitates the search and analysis of metabolic pathways. Heterogeneous metabolic databases including LIGAND, ENZYME, EcoCyc and MetaCyc are integrated in a systematic way, thereby allowing users to efficiently retrieve the relevant information on enzymes, biochemical compounds and reactions. In addition, it(More)
When subjected to stress, some individuals develop maladaptive symptoms whereas others retain normal behavior. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is known to control these adaptive responses to stress. Here, we show that mPFC neurons in the left hemisphere control stress effects on social behavior. Mice made socially avoidant by the stress of chronic(More)
Really interesting new gene (RING) finger protein 170 (RNF170) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase known to mediate ubiquitination-dependent degradation of type-I inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (ITPR1). It has recently been demonstrated that a point mutation of RNF170 gene is linked with autosomal-dominant sensory ataxia (ADSA), which is characterized by an(More)
Calcium (Ca2+) signals that are precisely modulated in space and time mediate a myriad of cellular processes, including contraction, excitation, growth, differentiation and apoptosis. However, study of Ca2+ responses has been hampered by technological limitations of existing Ca2+-modulating tools. Here we present OptoSTIM1, an optogenetic tool for(More)
Over the last few decades, molecular neurobiology has uncovered many genes whose deficiency in mice results in behavioral traits associated with human neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and schizophrenia. However, the etiology of these common diseases remains enigmatic with the potential involvement of a battery(More)
PURPOSE This study aimed to examine the necessity for research ethics and learning objectives in ethics education at the undergraduate level. METHODS A total of 393 fourth-year students, selected from nine medical schools, participated in a survey about learning achievement and the necessity for it. RESULTS It was found that the students had very few(More)
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