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This study was performed to examine the hypothesis that thalamic-projecting neurons of mesopontine cholinergic nuclei display activity patterns that are compatible with their role in inducing and maintaining activation processes in thalamocortical systems during the states of waking (W) and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep associated with desynchronization of(More)
The only mesopontine neurons previously described as involved in the transfer of ponto-geniculo-occipital (PGO) waves from the brain stem to the thalamus were termed PGO-on bursting cells. We have studied, in chronically implanted cats, neuronal activities in brain-stem peribrachial (PB) and laterodorsal tegmental (LDT) cholinergic nuclei in relation to PGO(More)
Although there are published studies of proline biochemistry and nutrition in cultured cells and postnatal animals, little is known about proline metabolism and function in the conceptus (embryo/fetus, associated placental membranes, and fetal fluids). Because of the invasive nature of biochemical research on placental and fetal growth, animal models are(More)
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a major health problem worldwide that currently lacks an effective therapeutic solution. This study was conducted with an ovine IUGR model to test the hypothesis that parenteral administration of l-arginine (Arg) is effective in enhancing fetal growth. Beginning on d 28 of gestation, ewes were fed a diet providing(More)
The frequency of multiple fetuses has increased in human pregnancies due to assisted reproductive technologies. This translates into a greater proportion of premature and low-birth weight infants in the United States and worldwide. In addition, improvements in sheep breeding have resulted in new breeds with increased litter size but reduced fetal survival(More)
Nitric oxide (NO), synthesized from l-arginine by tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4)-dependent NO synthase (NOS), is critical for neurological and muscular development and function. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that cholesterol and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may modulate the arginine-NO pathway in tissues of the young pig. Sixteen newborn pigs were(More)
Cholesterol and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are important nutrients for neural development of infants. However, little is known about the effect of cholesterol or DHA on concentrations of amino acids (AA) in neonatal tissues. This study was conducted with the piglet (an established model for studying human infant nutrition) to test the hypothesis that(More)
Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity in nerve is reduced in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes; three different isoforms of the alpha (catalytic) subunit of the enzyme are present in nerve. Using western blot to determine subunit isoform polypeptide levels in sciatic nerve, we found a substantial reduction in alpha 1-isoform polypeptide (88% at 3 weeks, 94% at 8(More)
We have previously hypothesized that the spike bursts of brainstem peribrachial (PB) neurons, leading to ponto-geniculo-occipital (PGO) waves in thalamocortical systems, are triggered by phasic hyperpolarizations of sufficient magnitude or by excitatory inputs reaching a steadily hyperpolarized membrane. We have proposed that the source of these(More)
Three isoforms of the Na,K-ATPase catalytic (alpha) subunit are present in neurons, demonstrated by in situ hybridization of neurons and Western blot of nerve. We used Western blot with antibodies specific for alpha 1, alpha 2 and alpha 3 peptides to measure the accumulation of individual peptides at a ligature on the sciatic nerve. alpha 1 peptide(More)