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Heterosexual transmission is the primary route by which women acquire human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS. Thus, development of woman-controlled topical microbicides for prevention of sexual transmission of HIV is urgently needed. Here we report that 3-hydroxyphthalic anhydride-modified chicken ovalbumin (HP-OVA) exhibits potent antiviral activity(More)
A novel swine-origin pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus (H1N1pdm, also referred to as S-OIV) was identified as the causative agent of the 21(st) century's first influenza pandemic, but molecular features conferring its ability of human-to-human transmission has not been identified. Here we compared the protein sequences of 2009 H1N1pdm strains with those(More)
Theaflavins are the major components of tea polyphenols in brewed black tea. We previously reported that theaflavin derivatives, such as TF3, inhibited HIV-1 entry by targeting gp41. However, it is difficult to purify the individual theaflavins and the purified compounds are highly unstable. To develop theaflavins as affordable anti-HIV-1 microbide for(More)
Previous studies have shown that 3-hydroxyphthalic anhydride (HP)-modified bovine milk protein, β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), is a promising microbicide candidate. However, concerns regarding the potential risk of prion contamination in bovine products and carcinogenic potential of phthalate derivatives were raised. Here we sought to replace bovine protein with(More)
To prove that the peptidic HIV-1 fusion inhibitors containing the pocket-binding domain (PBD) mainly target the hydrophobic pocket in the gp41 N-terminal heptad repeat (NHR), we constructed pseudoviruses by replacement of Q64 in the gp41 pocket region with Ala (Q64A) or Leu (Q64L). These viruses were highly resistant to C34 and CP32M containing the PBD,(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the hepatoprotective activity of different parts of Hypericum japonicum against carbon tetrachloride(CCl(4))-induced hepatitis and alpha-naphthyl-isothiocyanate (ANIT)-induced cholestasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS Mice were divided into groups and then administrated orally with solutions extracted from herbs before they were modeled(More)
Polyanionic candidate microbicides, including cellulose sulfate, carrageenan, PRO 2000, were proven ineffective in preventing HIV-1 transmission and even cellulose sulfate showed increased risk of HIV acquisition in the Phase III efficacy trials. Semen plays critical roles in HIV-1 sexual transmission. Specifically, amyloid fibrils formed by fragments of(More)
Besides mediating the viral entry process, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) envelope protein gp41 can bind to many host cell components and regulate cell functions. Using a yeast two-hybrid system, we screened a human bone marrow cDNA library and identified a novel gp41-binding protein, CD74 (the MHC class II-associated invariant chain). Here, we(More)
Receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) is essential for osteoclastogenesis. Targeting RANKL signaling pathways has been an encouraging strategy for treating lytic bone diseases such as osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Sinomenine (SIN), derived from Chinese medicinal plant Sinomenioumacutum, is an active compound to treat RA, but its effect on(More)
We previously demonstrated that a commercially available natural product preparation with high content (>90%) of theaflavin derivatives (TFmix) exhibited potent anti-HIV activities. Here we developed a TFmix gel formulation as a topical microbicide candidate. The effect of TFmix on the amyloid fibril formation of semen-derived enhancer of virus infection(More)