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As a collective and highly dynamic social group, the human crowd is a fascinating phenomenon that has been frequently studied by experts from various areas. Recently, computer-based modeling and simulation technologies have emerged to support investigation of the dynamics of crowds, such as a crowd's behaviors under normal and emergent situations. This(More)
Maintaining a consistent view of the simulated world among different simulation nodes is a fundamental problem in large-scale distributed virtual environments (DVEs). In this paper, we characterize this problem by quantifying the time-space inconsistency in a DVE. To this end, a metric is defined to measure the time-space inconsistency in a DVE. One major(More)
To support hundreds of thousands of players in massively multiplayer online games, a distributed client-server architecture is widely used in which multiple servers are deployed and each server handles a partition of the virtual world. Because of the unpredictable movements and interactions of avatars, the concentration of avatars in some regions of the(More)
We investigate the causality issue in distributed virtual environments. Causality has been widely studied in parallel and distributed systems. However, most of the work in causality detection and preservation are from a logical time system point of view, which are not generally suitable for distributed virtual environments due to the high cost of the(More)
Distributed virtual environments (DVEs) are distributed systems that allow multiple geographically distributed clients (users) to interact simultaneously in a computer-generated, shared virtual world. Applications of DVEs can be seen in many areas nowadays, such as online games, military simulations, collaborative designs, etc. To support large-scale DVEs(More)