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As a collective and highly dynamic social group, the human crowd is a fascinating phenomenon that has been frequently studied by experts from various areas. Recently, computer-based modeling and simulation technologies have emerged to support investigation of the dynamics of crowds, such as a crowd's behaviors under normal and emergent situations. This(More)
To support hundreds of thousands of players in massively multiplayer online games, a distributed client-server architecture is widely used in which multiple servers are deployed and each server handles a partition of the virtual world. Because of the unpredictable movements and interactions of avatars, the concentration of avatars in some regions of the(More)
We investigate the causal order of events in distributed virtual environments (DVEs). We first define the critical causal order relation among the events. Then, we propose some mechanisms to enhance the prevalent RO (receive order delivery) mechanism in DVEs so that the real-time property of DVEs is preserved while the critical causal order violations are(More)
Evolving agent-based simulations enables one to automate the difficult iterative process of modeling complex adaptive systems to exhibit pre-specified/desired behaviors. Nevertheless this emerging technology, combining research advances in agent-based modeling/simulation and evolutionary computation, requires significant computing resources (i.e., high(More)
Simulating crowds is a challenging but important problem. There are various methodologies in the literature ranging from macroscopic numerical flow simulations to detailed, microscopic agent simulations. One key issue for all crowd simulations is scalability. Some methods address this issue through abstraction, describing global properties of homogeneous(More)
Maintaining a consistent view of the simulated world among different simulation nodes is a fundamental problem in large-scale distributed virtual environments (DVEs). In this paper, we characterize this problem by quantifying the time-space inconsistency in a DVE. To this end, a metric is defined to measure the time-space inconsistency in a DVE. One major(More)
Group behaviors, e.g. birds flocking, are widely used in virtual reality, computer games, robotics and artificial life. While many methods to simulate group behaviors have been proposed, these methods are usually applied to sequential computing. Since most of these methods have a polynomial complexity, it is difficult to simulate a large group in real-time(More)