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Although previous studies have consistently demonstrated that gender information is used to resolve pronouns, the mechanisms underlying the use of gender information continue to be controversial. The present study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate whether working memory modulates the effect of gender information on pronoun resolution. The(More)
The boundary paradigm (Rayner, 1975) was used to examine whether high level information affects preview benefit during Chinese reading. In two experiments, readers read sentences with a 1-character target word while their eye movements were monitored. In Experiment 1, the semantic relatedness between the target word and the preview word was manipulated so(More)
How constituent concepts of a compound concept are put together for meaning construction is an important question in cognition. Using English noun-noun compounds with a modifier+noun structure, researchers have observed relation priming between compounds that share the same relation (snowball vs. snowman) compared with those that do not (snowball vs.(More)
The present study examined the relationship between P200 and phonological processing in Chinese word recognition. Participants did a semantic judgment task on pairs of words. The critical pairs were all semantically unrelated in one of three conditions: homophonic, rhyme, or phonologically unrelated. Noting the possibility that P200 may be affected by(More)
Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (ER-fMRI) was adopted to examine brain activation of syntactic processing in reading logographic Chinese. While fMRI data were obtained, 15 readers of Chinese read individually presented sentences and performed semantic congruency judgments on three kinds of sentences: Congruous sentences (CON), sentences(More)
In this paper, we report a kind of ordered 3D Au nano-prickle clusters by directly electrodeposited on glassy carbon electrode utilizing the spatial obstruction/direction of the polycarbonate membrane. The proposed 3D nanoclusters are applied to fabricate a sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor with human IgG as a model analyte. The electrodeposited Au(More)
The boundary paradigm (K. Rayner, 1975) was used to determine the extent to which Chinese readers obtain information from the right of fixation during reading. As characters are the basic visual unit in written Chinese, they were used as targets in Experiment 1 to examine whether readers obtain preview information from character n + 1 and character n + 2.(More)
Using event-related functional MRI, we examined the involvement of the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) in explicit and implicit semantic processing of Chinese sentences. During scanning, Chinese readers read individually presented normal sentences with a contextually expected or unexpected target noun and were asked to perform an explicit or implicit(More)
Recent work shows that items maintained in working memory could guide the orienting of attention in visual search, demonstrating an interesting interaction between working memory and attention. For such guidance effect, some studies emphasize the importance of search task type: for fixed-target search, task-irrelevant memory items stay inside the(More)
Using event-related functional MRI, we examined the involvement of the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) in semantic integration in reading Chinese sentences. During scanning, Chinese readers read individually presented sentences and judged whether or not a sentence was semantically acceptable. Behaviorally, those sentences with a small degree of semantic(More)