Suh Cem Pang

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We report that fluorescent carbon nanodots (Cdots) can act as an optical probe for quantifying Sn(II) ions in aqueous solution. C-dots are synthesized by carbonization and surface oxidation of preformed sago starch nanoparticles. Their fluorescence is significantly quenched by Sn(II) ions, and the effect can be used to determine Sn(II) ions. The highest(More)
The effect of pH and redox potential on the redox equilibria of iron oxides in aqueous-based magnetite dispersions was investigated. The ionic activities of each dissolved iron species in equilibrium with magnetite nanoparticles were determined and contoured within the Eh-pH framework of a composite stability diagram. Both standard redox potentials and(More)
The degradation of fossil fuels and other non-renewable energy resources are the challenges faced by current and future generations. This trend requires humans to utilize, reuse, and transform energy efficiently, for the right applications and with the right timing. The low-grade heat from industry, automobiles and the sun could be used/reused to drive a(More)
Engine cooling system plays an important role to maintain the operating temperature of engine. The coolant circuit initiates by picking up heat at water jackets.With the pressure gradient exists in coolant circuit, hot coolant flows out from engine to radiator or to bypass circuit (during cold start). The under hood air flow carries heat away at radiator(More)
Cellulose extracted from printed paper wastes were selectively depolymerized under controlled conditions into cello-oligomers of controllable chain lengths via dissolution in an ionic liquid, 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AMIMCl), and in the presence of an acid catalyst, Amberlyst 15DRY. The depolymerization process was optimized against reaction(More)
The conversion of starchy sago (Metroxylon sagu) pith waste (SPW), a lignocellulosic biomass waste, to fermentable sugars under mild conditions had been successfully demonstrated. The optimum depolymerization of SPW was achieved at 2 wt% sample loading which was catalyzed by 100 mM of oxalic acid in the presence of 25 wt% NaCl solution at 110 °C for 3 h. Up(More)
In this current era, increasing computing power, effort to reduce prototypes’ cost and time, and shorten design-toproduct time urges the need of numerical computation. Higher cooling’s load or requirement is attributed by higher power of engine. Also, higher quantity of heat exchangers and vehicles’ styling resulted limited space at vehicles’ hood. These(More)
A facile approach for the preparation of hydrophilic starch-based spherical nanoparticles from native sago (Metroxylon sagu) starch using the drop-wise solvent exchange method was reported. Starch-maleate monoester (SM) was initially synthesized from native sago starch and maleic anhydride in an aqueous medium, and SM nanoparticles was subsequently(More)
A full scale SI engine has been imported in to the CFD tool to analyse the temperature distribution of coolant throughout the cooling channels. The segregated approach solver has been adopted to solve the energy equations along with the RANS two layer turbulence model to find out accordance with the available theoretical and published results. The input(More)