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Extensive evidence from rat and human studies indicates that glucocorticoid hormones influence cognitive performance. Posttraining activation of glucocorticoid-sensitive pathways dose-dependently enhances the consolidation of long-term memory. Glucocorticoid effects on memory consolidation rely on noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala and(More)
Bacterial lipoproteins are synthesized as precursors in the cytoplasm and processed into mature forms on the cytoplasmic membrane. A lipid moiety attached to the N terminus anchors these proteins to the membrane surface. Many bacteria are predicted to express more than 100 lipoproteins, which play diverse functions on the cell surface. The Lol system,(More)
In this article we summarize a wide variety of properties of arachidonic acid (AA) in the mammalian nervous system especially in the brain. AA serves as a biologically-active signaling molecule as well as an important component of membrane lipids. Esterified AA is liberated from the membrane by phospholipase activity which is stimulated by various signals(More)
3-Hydroxykynurenine (3-HK) is a potential endogenous neurotoxin whose increased levels have been described in several neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we characterized in vitro neurotoxicity of 3-HK. Of the tested kynurenine pathway metabolites, only 3-HK, and to a lesser extent 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, were toxic to primary cultured striatal neurons.(More)
Millions of molecules of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) must be assembled on the Escherichia coli cell surface each time the cell divides. The biogenesis of LPS requires seven essential lipopolysaccharide transport (Lpt) proteins to move LPS from the inner membrane through the periplasm to the cell surface. However, no intermediate transport states have been(More)
An unknown amino sugar, U-7, which had been detected in the hydrolysate of the polysaccharide fraction (F-A) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa P14 lipopolysaccharide, was isolated from the hydrolysate of whole cells of this micro-organism and converted into the N-acetyl derivative (U-7NAc). On the basis of i.r.-absorption spectrometry, 13C-n.m.r. and 1H-n.m.r.(More)
The presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the outer leaflet of the outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria creates a permeability barrier that prevents the entry of most currently available antibiotics. The seven lipopolysaccharide transport (Lpt) proteins involved in transporting and assembling this glycolipid are essential for growth and division(More)
3-Hydroxykynurenine (3-HK) is a tryptophan metabolite whose level in the brain is markedly elevated under several pathological conditions, including Huntington disease and human immunodeficiency virus infection. Here we demonstrate that micromolar concentrations (1-100 microM) of 3-HK cause cell death in primary neuronal cultures prepared from rat striatum.(More)
The particulate enzyme prepared from Selenomonas ruminantium subsp. lactilytica catalyzed the formation of phosphatidylserine (PS) from CDP-diglyceride and serine, and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) from PS. This indicates that PS and PE in this organism are synthesized through a similar pathway to that in Escherichia coli. In turn-over experiments with(More)
Heterodimeric amino acid transporters play crucial roles in epithelial transport, as well as in cellular nutrition. Among them, the heterodimer of a membrane protein b(0,+)AT/SLC7A9 and its auxiliary subunit rBAT/SLC3A1 is responsible for cystine reabsorption in renal proximal tubules. The mutations in either subunit cause cystinuria, an inherited amino(More)