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We have isolated a novel basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) gene homologous to the Drosophila proneural gene atonal, termed ATH-3, from Xenopus and mouse. ATH-3 is expressed in the developing nervous system, with high levels of expression in the brain, retina and cranial ganglions. Injection of ATH-3 RNA into Xenopus embryos dramatically expands the neural tube(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the usefulness of diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) for the early diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). METHODS Thirty-six consecutive patients (age 56 to 82 years) were enrolled, and 26 were examined by DWI. Nine were definite based on the World Health Organization criteria, and 27 were probable. The percentages of DWI(More)
Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) plays a pivotal role in brain development and neuronal migration. Cdk5 is abundant in postmitotic, terminally differentiated neurons. The ability of Cdk5 to phosphorylate substrates is dependent on activation by its neuronal-specific activators p35 and p39. There exist striking differences in the phenotypic severity of(More)
The roles of active oxygen, lipid peroxidation, and the antioxidative defence mechanism in gastric mucosal injury induced by treatment with indomethacin in rats were investigated. The total area of gastric erosions and concentration of lipid peroxides in the gastric mucosa increased with time after administration of indomethacin (20 mg/kg, orally). The(More)
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors consist of five distinct subtypes and have been important targets for drug development. In the periphery, muscarinic acetylcholine receptors mediate cholinergic signals to autonomic organs, but specific physiological functions of each subtype remain poorly elucidated. Here, we have constructed and analyzed mutant mice(More)
We used fMRI to compare the ipsilateral activation in the sensorimotor region (SMR) during dominant and non-dominant hand motor tasks between right and left handers. In right handers, the ipsilateral activation was significantly greater during non-dominant (left) hand task than dominant (right) hand task, while in left handers, it showed no significant(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine, by using functional magnetic resonance imaging, the areas of the brain activated during a memory-timed finger movement task and compare these with those activated during a visually cued movement task. Because it is likely that subjects engage in subvocalization associated with chronometric counting to achieve(More)
We have immunohistochemically investigated the expression of a reeler gene-related antigen in the mouse cerebellum by using a monoclonal antibody, CR-50. This antibody probes a distinct allelic antigen present in normal but not in reeler mutant mice, and this antigen is localized in the brain regions in which morphological abnormalities occur in reeler mice(More)
Members of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) class of glutamate receptors (NMDARs) are critical for development, synaptic transmission, learning and memory; they are targets of pathological disorders in the central nervous system. NMDARs are phosphorylated by both serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases. Here, we demonstrate that cyclin dependent kinase-5(More)
The Ran gene family encodes small GTP binding proteins that are associated with a variety of nuclear processes. We isolated a Xenopus Ran cDNA and analyzed the pattern of expression of this gene during embryogenesis. Ran is expressed maternally and later in the CNS, neural crest, mesenchyme, eyes, and otic vesicles. However, expression is not detected in(More)