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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is considered to be a risk factor for dementia including Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the molecular mechanism underlying this risk is not well understood. We examined gene expression profiles in postmortem human brains donated for the Hisayama study. Three-way analysis of variance of microarray data from frontal cortex, temporal(More)
Oxidative base lesions, such as 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG), accumulate in nuclear and mitochondrial DNAs under oxidative stress, resulting in cell death. However, it is not known which form of DNA is involved, whether nuclear or mitochondrial, nor is it known how the death order is executed. We established cells which selectively accumulate 8-oxoG in either type(More)
Accumulation of oxidized bases such as 8-oxoguanine in either nuclear or mitochondrial DNA triggers various cellular dysfunctions including mutagenesis, and programmed cell death or senescence. Recent studies have revealed that oxidized nucleoside triphosphates such as 8-oxo-dGTP in the nucleotide pool are the main source of oxidized bases accumulating in(More)
8-Oxoguanine (8-oxoG), a common DNA lesion caused by reactive oxygen species, is associated with carcinogenesis and neurodegeneration. Although the mechanism by which 8-oxoG causes carcinogenesis is well understood, the mechanism by which it causes neurodegeneration is unknown. Here, we report that neurodegeneration is triggered by MUTYH-mediated excision(More)
Reactive oxygen species produced in response to UVR are important in skin tumor development. We have previously reported that deficiency of the Ogg1 gene, encoding the repair enzyme for 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG), increases skin tumor incidence in mice upon repetitive UVB exposure and modulation of UVB-induced inflammatory response. Spirulina(More)
Synthetic sickness/lethality (SSL) can be exploited to develop therapeutic strategies for cancer. Deficiencies in the tumor suppressor proteins MLH1 and MSH2 have been implicated in cancer. Here we demonstrate that deficiency in MSH2 is SSL with inhibition of the DNA polymerase POLB, whereas deficiency in MLH1 is SSL with DNA polymerase POLG inhibition.(More)
8-oxoguanine is a major base lesion in DNA or in nucleotides caused by oxidative stress, and is highly mutagenic because it can pair with adenine as well as cytosine. Adenine DNA glycosylase, encoded by the human mutY homolog gene, MUTYH, excises adenine in the nascent strand when inserted opposite 8-oxoguanine in template DNA, and thus suppresses(More)
Human MutT homolog (hMTH1) hydrolyzes oxidized purine nucleoside triphosphates to monophosphates, thereby avoiding incorporation of such oxidized purines into DNA or RNA. We examined whether hMTH1 prevents cellular dysfunction induced by sodium nitroprusside, a spontaneous NO donor. Exposure to sodium nitroprusside caused an 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) buildup in(More)
Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are implicated in aging-related neurodegenerative disorders. 8-Oxoguanine (8-oxoG), a common oxidised base lesion, is often highly accumulated in brains from patients with neurodegenerative disorders. MTH1 hydrolyses 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine triphosphate (8-oxo-dGTP) to 8-oxo-dGMP and pyrophosphate in nucleotide(More)
8-Oxoguanine (8-oxoG), an oxidized form of guanine, is one of the major mutagenic lesions generated under oxidative stress. Oxidative damage in mitochondrial DNA has been implicated as a causative factor for a wide variety of degenerative diseases as well as for cancer during aging. We established a quantitative method for in situ detection of 8-oxoG in(More)