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Mounting evidence indicates that alterations of autophagy processes are directly involved in the development of many human diseases, including cancers. Autophagy-related gene (ATG) products are main players in the autophagy process. In humans there are 16 known ATG genes, of which four (ATG2B, ATG5, ATG9B and ATG12) have mononucleotide repeats with seven or(More)
Recurrent somatic mutations in MED12 exon 2 have recently been reported in uterine leiomyomas. The recurrent nature of the mutations strongly suggests that the mutations may play important roles in the pathogenesis of uterine leiomyomas. The aim of our study was to see whether MED12 exon 2 mutations occur in other human tumors besides uterine leiomyomas. We(More)
PURPOSE Recent reports revealed that the kinase domain of the ERBB2 gene is somatically mutated in lung adenocarcinoma, suggesting the mutated ERBB2 gene as an oncogene in human cancers. However, because previous reports focused the mutational search of ERBB2 primarily on lung cancers, the data on ERBB2 mutations in other types of human cancers have been(More)
Missense somatic mutations in IDH1 gene affecting codon 132 have recently been reported in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and other gliomas. The recurrent nature of the IDH1 mutations in the same amino acid strongly suggests that the mutations may play important roles in the pathogenesis of glial tumors. The aim of this study was to see whether the IDH1(More)
Progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a stepwise process that proceeds from pre-neoplastic lesions--including low-grade dysplastic nodules (LGDNs) and high-grade dysplastic nodules (HGDNs)--to advanced HCC. The molecular changes associated with this progression are unclear, however, and the morphological cues thought to distinguish pre-neoplastic(More)
We have analysed the genetic alteration of the entire coding region and all splice sites of caspase-8 and -10 genes in 99 gastric cancers by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and sequencing. We found LOH of the caspase-8 and -10 in nine (28%) of 32 and in four (15%) of 26 informative cases, respectively. Overall,(More)
Histone methyltransferase (HMT), which catalyzes a histone methylation, is frequently altered in cancers at mutation and expression levels. The aims of this study were to explore whether SETD1B, SETDB2, and SETD2, SET domain-containing HMT genes, are mutated and expressionally altered in gastric (GC) and colorectal cancers (CRC). In a public database, we(More)
Both epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and RAS gene mutations contribute to the development of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Because RAS is one of the downstream molecules in the EGFR signal transduction, the association between the somatic mutations of EGFR and RAS may be important in the pathogenesis of NSCLC . However, to date, such data are(More)
There is mounting evidence that alterations of cell death processes are involved in cancer pathogenesis. ATG5 is a key regulator of autophagic and apoptotic cell death. The aim of this study was to see whether alterations of ATG5 protein expression and somatic mutation of ATG5 gene are features of human gastrointestinal cancers. In this study, we analyzed(More)
Ras proteins control signaling pathways that are key regulators of several aspects of normal cell growth and malignant transformation. BRAF, which encodes a RAF family member in the downstream pathway of RAS, is somatically mutated in a number of human cancers. The activating mutation of BRAF is known to play a role in tumor development. As there have been(More)