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A method is described whereby a sequence of X-ray images at closely spaced photon energies is acquired using a scanning transmission X-ray microscope, and aligned. Near-edge absorption spectra can then be obtained both from large, irregular regions, and from regions as small as the spatial resolution of the microscope (about 40 nm in the examples shown(More)
[1] Small-scale heterogeneity of organic carbon (C) forms in soils is poorly quantified since appropriate analytical techniques were not available up to now. Specifically, tools for the identification of functional groups on the surface of micrometer-sized black C particles were not available up to now. Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM) using(More)
Black carbon (BC) may play an important role in the global C budget, due to its potential to act as a significant sink of atmospheric CO 2. In order to fully evaluate the influence of BC on the global C cycle, an understanding of the stability of BC is required. The biochemical stability of BC was assessed in a chronosequence of high-BC-containing(More)
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Particulate matter (PM) from biomass burning and diesel exhaust has distinct X-ray spectroscopic, carbon specific signatures, which can be employed for source apportionment. Characterization of the functional groups of a wide selection of PM samples (woodsmoke, diesel soot, urban air PM) was carried out using the soft X-ray spectroscopy capabilities at the(More)
In vascular plants, the polysaccharide-based walls of water-conducting cells are strengthened by impregnation with the polyphenolic polymer lignin. The fine-scale patterning of lignin deposition in water-conducting cells is shown here to vary phylogenetically across vascular plants. The extent to which water transport in xylem cells can be modified in(More)
Organics found in comet 81P/Wild 2 samples show a heterogeneous and unequilibrated distribution in abundance and composition. Some organics are similar, but not identical, to those in interplanetary dust particles and carbonaceous meteorites. A class of aromatic-poor organic material is also present. The organics are rich in oxygen and nitrogen compared(More)
The Stardust spacecraft collected thousands of particles from comet 81P/Wild 2 and returned them to Earth for laboratory study. The preliminary examination of these samples shows that the nonvolatile portion of the comet is an unequilibrated assortment of materials that have both presolar and solar system origin. The comet contains an abundance of silicate(More)
We used the model organisms Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Xanthi (tobacco) and Triticum aestivum (wheat) to investigate plant uptake of 10-, 30-, and 50-nm diameter Au manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs) coated with either tannate (T-MNMs) or citrate (C-MNMs). Primary particle size, hydrodynamic size, and zeta potential were characterized using transmission(More)