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A method is described whereby a sequence of X-ray images at closely spaced photon energies is acquired using a scanning transmission X-ray microscope, and aligned. Near-edge absorption spectra can then be obtained both from large, irregular regions, and from regions as small as the spatial resolution of the microscope (about 40 nm in the examples shown(More)
[1] Small-scale heterogeneity of organic carbon (C) forms in soils is poorly quantified since appropriate analytical techniques were not available up to now. Specifically, tools for the identification of functional groups on the surface of micrometer-sized black C particles were not available up to now. Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM) using(More)
Black carbon (BC) may play an important role in the global C budget, due to its potential to act as a significant sink of atmospheric CO2. In order to fully evaluate the influence of BC on the global C cycle, an understanding of the stability of BC is required. The biochemical stability of BC was assessed in a chronosequence of high-BC-containing Anthrosols(More)
We used the model organisms Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Xanthi (tobacco) and Triticum aestivum (wheat) to investigate plant uptake of 10-, 30-, and 50-nm diameter Au manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs) coated with either tannate (T-MNMs) or citrate (C-MNMs). Primary particle size, hydrodynamic size, and zeta potential were characterized using transmission(More)
1817 Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 73:1817-1830 doi:10.2136/sssaj2008.0228 Received 7 July 2008. *Corresponding author (DS278@cornell.edu). © Soil Science Society of America 677 S. Segoe Rd. Madison WI 53711 USA All rights reserved. No part of this periodical may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including(More)
The X1A soft X-ray undulator beamline at the NSLS has been rebuilt to serve two microscopy stations operating simultaneously. Separate spherical-grating monochromators provide the resolving power required for XANES spectroscopy at the C, N and O absorption edges. The exit slits are fixed and define the coherent source for the experiments. The optical design(More)
In vascular plants, the polysaccharide-based walls of water-conducting cells are strengthened by impregnation with the polyphenolic polymer lignin. The fine-scale patterning of lignin deposition in water-conducting cells is shown here to vary phylogenetically across vascular plants. The extent to which water transport in xylem cells can be modified in(More)
The Stardust spacecraft collected thousands of particles from comet 81P/Wild 2 and returned them to Earth for laboratory study. The preliminary examination of these samples shows that the nonvolatile portion of the comet is an unequilibrated assortment of materials that have both presolar and solar system origin. The comet contains an abundance of silicate(More)
Soft X-ray microscopy at the NSLS Tobias Beetz, Michael Feser, Holger Fleckenstein, Benjamin Hornberger, Chris Jacobsen, Janos Kirz, Mirna Lerotic, Enju Lima, Ming Lu, David Sayre, David Shapiro, Aaron Stein, Don Tennant, and Sue Wirick Department of Physics & Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook NY 11794, USA Brookhaven National Laboratory,(More)
Organics found in comet 81P/Wild 2 samples show a heterogeneous and unequilibrated distribution in abundance and composition. Some organics are similar, but not identical, to those in interplanetary dust particles and carbonaceous meteorites. A class of aromatic-poor organic material is also present. The organics are rich in oxygen and nitrogen compared(More)