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[1] Small-scale heterogeneity of organic carbon (C) forms in soils is poorly quantified since appropriate analytical techniques were not available up to now. Specifically, tools for the identification of functional groups on the surface of micrometer-sized black C particles were not available up to now. Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM) using(More)
Black carbon (BC) may play an important role in the global C budget, due to its potential to act as a significant sink of atmospheric CO 2. In order to fully evaluate the influence of BC on the global C cycle, an understanding of the stability of BC is required. The biochemical stability of BC was assessed in a chronosequence of high-BC-containing(More)
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Organics found in comet 81P/Wild 2 samples show a heterogeneous and unequilibrated distribution in abundance and composition. Some organics are similar, but not identical, to those in interplanetary dust particles and carbonaceous meteorites. A class of aromatic-poor organic material is also present. The organics are rich in oxygen and nitrogen compared(More)
The Stardust spacecraft collected thousands of particles from comet 81P/Wild 2 and returned them to Earth for laboratory study. The preliminary examination of these samples shows that the nonvolatile portion of the comet is an unequilibrated assortment of materials that have both presolar and solar system origin. The comet contains an abundance of silicate(More)
The bulk of the comet 81P/Wild 2 (hereafter Wild 2) samples returned to Earth by the Stardust spacecraft appear to be weakly constructed mixtures of nanometer-scale grains, with occasional much larger (over 1 micrometer) ferromagnesian silicates, Fe-Ni sulfides, Fe-Ni metal, and accessory phases. The very wide range of olivine and low-Ca pyroxene(More)
In vascular plants, the polysaccharide-based walls of water-conducting cells are strengthened by impregnation with the polyphenolic polymer lignin. The fine-scale patterning of lignin deposition in water-conducting cells is shown here to vary phylogenetically across vascular plants. The extent to which water transport in xylem cells can be modified in(More)
a r t i c l e i n f o Soil represents the largest reservoir of terrestrial organic C, and plays a critical role in global C cycling. In light of predicted climate change and a more unified approach to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, the soil's ability to sequester C, and thus to act as a sink or a source for atmospheric CO 2 has received growing(More)
Black C is an essential component of the terrestrial C pool and its formation is often credited as a CO(2) sink by transferring the fast-cycling C from the atmosphere-biosphere system into slower cycling C in the geosphere. This study is the first multi-element K- (C, N, Ca, Fe, Al and Si) soft-X-ray STXM-NEXAFS investigation conducted at a submicron-scale(More)