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Factor-induced reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is inefficient, complicating mechanistic studies. Here, we examined defined intermediate cell populations poised to becoming iPSCs by genome-wide analyses. We show that induced pluripotency elicits two transcriptional waves, which are driven by c-Myc/Klf4 (first wave)(More)
The ability to genetically modify human embryonic stem cells (HESCs) will be critical for their widespread use as a tool for understanding fundamental aspects of human biology and pathology and for their development as a platform for pharmaceutical discovery. Here, we describe a method for the genetic modification of HESCs using electroporation, the(More)
We have used homologous recombination in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to insert sequences encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) into the NKX2.1 locus, a gene required for normal development of the basal forebrain. Generation of NKX2.1-GFP(+) cells was dependent on the concentration, timing, and duration of retinoic acid treatment during(More)
NKX2-5 is expressed in the heart throughout life. We targeted eGFP sequences to the NKX2-5 locus of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs); NKX2-5(eGFP/w) hESCs facilitate quantification of cardiac differentiation, purification of hESC-derived committed cardiac progenitor cells (hESC-CPCs) and cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) and the standardization of differentiation(More)
Mixl1 is a homeodomain transcription factor required for mesoderm and endoderm patterning during mammalian embryogenesis. Despite its crucial function in development, co-factors that modulate the activity of Mixl1 remain poorly defined. Here we report that Mixl1 interacts physically and functionally with the T-box protein Brachyury and related members of(More)
Clinical antimicrobial susceptibility breakpoints are used to predict the clinical outcome of antimicrobial treatment. In contrast, microbiologic breakpoints are used to identify isolates that may be categorized as susceptible when applying clinical breakpoints but harbor resistance mechanisms that result in their reduced susceptibility to the agent being(More)
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