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Factor-induced reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is inefficient, complicating mechanistic studies. Here, we examined defined intermediate cell populations poised to becoming iPSCs by genome-wide analyses. We show that induced pluripotency elicits two transcriptional waves, which are driven by c-Myc/Klf4 (first wave)(More)
NKX2-5 is expressed in the heart throughout life. We targeted eGFP sequences to the NKX2-5 locus of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs); NKX2-5(eGFP/w) hESCs facilitate quantification of cardiac differentiation, purification of hESC-derived committed cardiac progenitor cells (hESC-CPCs) and cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) and the standardization of differentiation(More)
We have used homologous recombination in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to insert sequences encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) into the NKX2.1 locus, a gene required for normal development of the basal forebrain. Generation of NKX2.1-GFP(+) cells was dependent on the concentration, timing, and duration of retinoic acid treatment during(More)
Degeneration of both motoneurons and interneurons has been previously observed in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. It is unclear whether interneuronal loss is due to an intrinsic neuronal defect or if it occurs secondary to loss of their target motoneurons. We have examined the target dependence of interneurons, their survival and alterations in the(More)
Mixl1 is a homeodomain transcription factor required for mesoderm and endoderm patterning during mammalian embryogenesis. Despite its crucial function in development, co-factors that modulate the activity of Mixl1 remain poorly defined. Here we report that Mixl1 interacts physically and functionally with the T-box protein Brachyury and related members of(More)
The ability to genetically modify human embryonic stem cells (HESCs) will be critical for their widespread use as a tool for understanding fundamental aspects of human biology and pathology and for their development as a platform for pharmaceutical discovery. Here, we describe a method for the genetic modification of HESCs using electroporation, the(More)
The Mixl1 homeodomain protein plays a key role in mesendoderm patterning during embryogenesis, but its target genes remain to be identified. We compared gene expression in differentiating heterozygous Mixl1(GFP/w) and homozygous null Mixl1(GFP/Hygro) mouse embryonic stem cells to identify potential downstream transcriptional targets of Mixl1. Candidate(More)
The Mixl1 gene encodes a homeodomain transcription factor that is required for normal mesoderm and endoderm development in the mouse. We have examined the consequences of enforced Mixl1 expression during mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation. We show that three independently derived ESC lines constitutively expressing Mixl1 (Mixl1(C) ESCs)(More)
The limited availability of human vascular endothelial cells (ECs) hampers research into EC function whilst the lack of precisely defined culture conditions for this cell type presents problems for addressing basic questions surrounding EC physiology. We aimed to generate endothelial progenitors from human pluripotent stem cells to facilitate the study of(More)
Cellular reprogramming refers to the conversion of one cell type into another by altering its epigenetic marks. This can be achieved by three different methods: somatic cell nuclear transfer, cell fusion and transcription factor (TF)-mediated reprogramming. TF-mediated reprogramming can occur through several means, either reverting backwards to a(More)