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During angiogenesis, endothelial cells undergo proliferation, reorganization, and stabilization to establish a mature vascular network. This process is critical for establishing a functional circulatory system during development and contributes to the pathological process of tumor growth. Here we report that embryos deficient for the ERK5 MAPK die between(More)
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in several populations have demonstrated significant association of the IL23R gene with IBD (Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC)) and psoriasis, suggesting that perturbation of the IL-23 signaling pathway is relevant to the pathophysiology of these diseases. One particular variant, R381Q (rs11209026),(More)
Thymocytes carrying MHC class I-restricted TCRs differentiate into CD8 T cells, while those recognizing MHC class II become CD4 T cells. The mechanisms underlying how MHC class recognition, coreceptor expression, and effector function are coordinated are not well understood. Since the tyrosine kinase Lck binds with more affinity to CD4 than CD8, it has been(More)
FADD is an adaptor known to transmit apoptotic signals from members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family. We show here that FADD has a domain implicated in cell proliferation. Mice bearing the Asp mutation in the serine 191 phosphorylation site are runted and anemic and display splenomegaly. Apoptosis is unimpaired in these mice, but they exhibit(More)
Recent investigations have solidified the importance of negative selection in controlling autoimmunity. Loss of autoimmune regulator (AIRE), required for thymic stromal-cell differentiation and thymic expression of peripheral antigens, results in multi-organ autoimmunity. Mice with AIRE/Foxp3 double mutations suffer from exacerbated autoimmunity when(More)
The nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinase p56lck (Lck) serves as a fundamental regulator of thymocyte development by delivering signals from the pre-T cell receptor (pre-TCR) that permit subsequent maturation. However, considerable evidence supports the view that Lck also participates in signal transduction from the mature TCR. We have tested this conjecture(More)
TYK2 is a JAK family protein tyrosine kinase activated in response to multiple cytokines, including type I IFNs, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, and IL-23. Extensive studies of mice that lack TYK2 expression indicate that the IFN-α, IL-12, and IL-23 pathways, but not the IL-6 or IL-10 pathways, are compromised. In contrast, there have been few studies of the role of(More)
A therapeutic rationale is proposed for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, such as psoriasis and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), by selective targeting of TYK2. Hit triage, following a high-throughput screen for TYK2 inhibitors, revealed pyridine 1 as a promising starting point for lead identification. Initial expansion of 3 separate regions of the(More)
The ERK5 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) differs from other MAPKs in possessing a potent transcriptional activation domain. ERK5-/- embryos die from angiogenic defects, but the precise physiological role of ERK5 remains poorly understood. To elucidate molecular functions of ERK5 in the development of vasculature and other tissues, we performed gene(More)
Recent investigations have provided important insights into how signaling through the antigen receptors determines whether a cell survives or dies. In T cells, Grb2 and MAP kinases play essential roles in differentiating between apoptotic and survival signals. The PTEN phosphatase and Bim, a pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member, regulate apoptosis in both T(More)