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The neural cell recognition molecule L1 is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily implicated in embryonic brain development. L1 is engaged in complex extracellular interactions, with multiple binding partners on cell surfaces and in the extracellular matrix. It is the founder of a neural group of related cell surface receptors that share with L1 a(More)
The molecular basis of X-linked recessive anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency (EDA-ID) has remained elusive. Here we report hypomorphic mutations in the gene IKBKG in 12 males with EDA-ID from 8 kindreds, and 2 patients with a related and hitherto unrecognized syndrome of EDA-ID with osteopetrosis and lymphoedema (OL-EDA-ID). Mutations in(More)
Human single gene disorders that affect the nervous system provide a host of natural mutations that can be deployed in the quest to understand its development and function. A paradigm for this approach is the study of disorders caused by mutations in the gene for the neural cell recognition molecule L1. L1 is the founder member of a subfamily of cell(More)
Mutations in the L1CAM gene cause a highly variable neurological disease described as X-linked hydrocephalus, MASA syndrome or spastic paraplegia type I. Over one-third of the mutations identified in affected boys are missense, unique to individual families and distributed primarily across the large extracellular domain of the L1 protein. We have examined(More)
Mutations in the L1 gene induce a spectrum of human neurological disorders due to abnormal development of several brain structures and fiber tracts. Among its binding partners, L1 immunoglobulin superfamily adhesion molecule (Ig CAM) associates with neuropilin-1 (NP-1) to form a semaphorin3A (Sema3A) receptor and soluble L1 converts Sema3A-induced axonal(More)
The diploid frog X. tropicalis has recently been adopted as a model genetic system, but loss-of-function screens in Xenopus have not yet been performed. We have undertaken a pilot functional knockdown screen in X. tropicalis for genes involved in nervous system development by injecting antisense morpholino (MO) oligos directed against X. tropicalis mRNAs.(More)
Familial incontinentia pigmenti (IP; MIM 308310) is a genodermatosis that segregates as an X-linked dominant disorder and is usually lethal prenatally in males. In affected females it causes highly variable abnormalities of the skin, hair, nails, teeth, eyes and central nervous system. The prominent skin signs occur in four classic cutaneous stages:(More)
The L1 cell adhesion molecule has six domains homologous to members of the immunoglobulin superfamily and five homologous to fibronectin type III domains. We determined the outline structure of the L1 domains by showing that they have, at the key sites that determine conformation, residues similar to those in proteins of known structure. The outline(More)
BACKGROUND Holoprosencephaly (HPE), the most common malformation of the human forebrain, may be due to mutations in genes associated with non-syndromic HPE. Mutations in ZIC2, located on chromosome 13q32, are a common cause of non-syndromic, non-chromosomal HPE. OBJECTIVE To characterise genetic and clinical findings in patients with ZIC2 mutations. (More)
Genetic and molecular studies show that the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) locus at Xp21 is large and complex. We have analyzed this region using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and have determined physical distances between Xp21 probes. The sum of the sizes of the Sfil restriction fragments detected by these probes is greater than 4000 kb. The(More)