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Proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) is a recently characterized G-protein coupled receptor that is cleaved and activated by pancreatic trypsin. Trypsin is usually considered a digestive enzyme in the intestinal lumen. We examined the hypothesis that trypsin, at concentrations normally present in the lumen of the small intestine, is also a signaling(More)
Understanding the physiological role of tachykinins requires precise cellular and subcellular localization of their receptors. We raised antisera by immunizing rabbits with peptides corresponding to portions of the intracellular tails of the rat neurokinin 1, 2, and 3 receptors (NK1-R, NK2-R, NK3-R). Receptors were localized by immunofluorescence and(More)
Proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) is a G-protein-coupled receptor that is expressed by intestinal epithelial cells, which are episodically exposed to pancreatic trypsin in the intestinal lumen. Trypsin cleaves PAR-2 to expose a tethered ligand, which irreversibly activates the receptor. Thus, PAR-2 may desensitize and resensitize by novel mechanisms.(More)
Proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) is a G protein-coupled receptor that is cleaved and activated by trypsin-like enzymes. PAR-2 is highly expressed by small intestinal enterocytes where it is activated by luminal trypsin. The location, mechanism of activation, and biological functions of PAR-2 in the colon, however, are unknown. We localized PAR-2 to(More)
The dipeptidyl peptidase IV gene encodes a plasma-membrane exopeptidase that is highly expressed in small intestine, lung and kidney. In order to better understand the mechanisms responsible for this tissue-specific expression we cloned, sequenced and functionally characterized the 5'-flanking region of the human dipeptidyl peptidase IV gene. The first 500(More)
The large and functionally diverse group of G-protein-coupled receptors includes receptors for many different signalling molecules, including peptide and non-peptide hormones and neuro-transmitters, chemokines, prostanoids and proteinases. Their principal function is to transmit information about the extracellular environment to the interior of the cell by(More)
Cellular responses to agonists of G protein-coupled receptors are rapidly attenuated. Mechanisms of signal attenuation include ligand removal from the extracellular fluid and receptor desensitization, endocytosis, and downregulation. Cell surface peptidases degrade neuropeptides in the extracellular fluid and thereby terminate their biological actions. G(More)
Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) is a dominant Mendelian disorder characterised by mental retardation, a typical facies, broad thumbs and short stature. Previous reports indicated that 4-25% of RTS patients have a submicroscopic 16p13.3 deletion of the CBP gene. Using FISH and cosmid probes RT100, RT191 and RT203 we studied 45 RTS patients from Germany, the(More)
Angiogenesis is essential for normal tissue and even more so for solid malignancies. At present, inhibition of tumor angiogenesis is a major focus of anticancer drug development. Bevacizumab, a humanized antibody against VEGF, was the first antiangiogenic agent to be approved for advanced non-small cell lung cancer, breast cancer and colorectal cancer. The(More)
BACKGROUND Catheter hub decontamination requires a thorough scrub and compliance varies. This study evaluates the effectiveness of a disinfection cap with 70% alcohol in preventing contamination/infection. METHODS A 3-phased, multifacility, quasi-experimental study of adult patients with central lines divided into P1 (baseline), when the standard scrub(More)