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Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has a key role in innate immunity by activating an inflammatory signaling pathway. Free fatty acids (FFAs) stimulate adipose tissue inflammation through the TLR4 pathway, resulting in insulin resistance. However, current evidence suggests that FFAs do not directly bind to TLR4, but an endogenous ligand for TLR4 remains to be(More)
Complete vitellogenesis (synthesis and incorporation of vitellogenin, Vg) in the female catfish, Clarias batrachus, during different reproductive phases (preparatory, prespawning, and postspawning) of its annual ovarian cycle is induced by administering heterologous Vg (semipurified; ULT-I and purified; HA-I and HA-II) isolated from the Indian major carp,(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) have been proposed to play a critical role as adjuvants in vaccination and immunotherapy. In this study we evaluated the combined effect of soluble Leishmania donovani Ag (SLDA)-pulsed syngeneic bone marrow-derived DC-based immunotherapy and antimony-based chemotherapy for the treatment of established murine visceral leishmaniasis.(More)
Intrinsic role of preovulatory and nidatory estrogen and progesterone and presence of viable blastocysts in utero in pinopod development on the uterine luminal epithelial surface and correlation between time of their development and onset of endometrial sensitivity were investigated. In adult rats, pinopods were observed on the entire epithelium even before(More)
Fatty acids (FAs) are known to impair insulin signaling in target cells. Accumulating evidences suggest that one of the major sites of FAs adverse effect is insulin receptor (IR). However, the underlying mechanism is yet unclear. An important clue was indicated in leptin receptor deficient (db/db) diabetic mice where increased circulatory FAs was coincided(More)
BACKGROUND The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of CO2 laser on the periodontally involved root surface, and to compare its efficacy with citric acid, EDTA and hydrogen peroxide in removal of root surface smear layer after root planing. METHODS The study was conducted on 50 periodontally involved single rooted human teeth with(More)
In this study, viruria following Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection in mice has been shown to appear earlier in pregnant than in normal mice with proteinuria and haematuria. This was related to the production of splenic macrophage derived neutrophil chemotactic factor (MDF) following JEV infection. Intravenous inoculation of MDF in mice resulted in(More)