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The transcriptional activity of NF-kappa B is stimulated upon phosphorylation of its p65 subunit on serine 276 by protein kinase A (PKA). The transcriptional coactivator CPB/p300 associates with NF-kappa B p65 through two sites, an N-terminal domain that interacts with the C-terminal region of unphosphorylated p65, and a second domain that only interacts(More)
The ENCyclopedia Of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Project aims to identify all functional elements in the human genome sequence. The pilot phase of the Project is focused on a specified 30 megabases (È1%) of the human genome sequence and is organized as an international consortium of computational and laboratory-based scientists working to develop and apply(More)
The Toll-mediated signaling cascade using the NF-kappaB pathway has been shown to be essential for immune responses in adult Drosophila, and we recently reported that a human homolog of the Drosophila Toll protein induces various immune response genes via this pathway. We now demonstrate that signaling by the human Toll receptor employs an adaptor protein,(More)
NF-kappa B, which consists of two polypeptides, p50 (M(r) 50K) and p65/RelA (M(r) 65K), is thought to be a key regulator of genes involved in responses to infection, inflammation and stress. Indeed, although developmentally normal, mice deficient in p50 display functional defects in immune responses. Here we describe the generation of mice deficient in the(More)
Activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB by proinflammatory stimuli leads to increased expression of genes involved in inflammation. Activation of NF-kappaB requires the activity of an inhibitor of kappaB (IkappaB)-kinase (IKK) complex containing two kinases (IKKalpha and IKKbeta) and the regulatory protein NEMO (NF-kappaB essential(More)
Stimulation of cells with inducers of NF-kappaB such as LPS and IL-1 leads to the degradation of IkappaB-alpha and IkappaB-beta proteins and translocation of NF-kappaB to the nucleus. We now demonstrate that, besides the physical partitioning of inactive NF-kappaB to the cytosol, the transcriptional activity of NF-kappaB is regulated through phosphorylation(More)
Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B), which was first detected by its binding to the kappa B site in the immunoglobulin kappa-gene enhancer, is important for the regulated expression of the kappa-gene and is partly responsible for the induction in appropriate cells of interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-2 alpha receptor, beta-interferon and serum amyloid A protein.(More)
5. Medical management of active ulcerative colitis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 5.1. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 5.1.1. Disease activity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(More)
BACKGROUND Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation, which includes increased macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue (AT) and upregulation of chemokines and cytokines. T cells also play important roles in chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis but have not been well studied in obesity. METHODS AND RESULTS Flow cytometric analysis(More)