Optimal immune activation of naïve CD8 T cells requires signal 1 mediated by the T cell receptor, signal 2 mediated by co-stimulation and signal 3 provided by pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, the potential for signal 3 cytokines to rescue anti-viral responses in functionally exhausted T cells has not been defined. We investigated the effect of using… (More)
The standard of care for treatment of individuals chronically infected with hepatitis C virus is pegylated interferon in combination with ribavirin. Efficacy is closely related to viral genotype. This review outlines potential therapeutic strategies for treatment failures and discusses some of the newer agents currently in development.