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INTRODUCTION Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) virus infection affects more than 170 million people globally. The aim of treatment of CHC is to effect sustained elimination of the virus (a sustained virological response, SVR). Prior to the development of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents, the standard of care (SOC) for CHC comprised combined treatment with(More)
BACKGROUND A substantial proportion of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) cirrhosis fail to eradicate infection and develop liver-related complications. Despite evidence that interferon-α has an antifibrotic effect, clinical trials have demonstrated that low-dose maintenance interferon does not improve outcomes in patients with compensated HCV(More)
Optimal immune activation of naïve CD8 T cells requires signal 1 mediated by the T cell receptor, signal 2 mediated by co-stimulation and signal 3 provided by pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, the potential for signal 3 cytokines to rescue anti-viral responses in functionally exhausted T cells has not been defined. We investigated the effect of using(More)
The primary aim of antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is the prevention of progressive disease. A response to interferon (IFN) treatment is associated with an improvement in all-cause mortality and liver-related mortality from hepatitis C. Unless contraindicated, patients with CHC are thus potential candidates for treatment. Improved response(More)
The use of triple-therapy, pegylated-interferon, ribavirin and either of the first generation hepatitis C virus (HCV) protease inhibitors telaprevir or boceprevir, is the new standard of care for treating genotype 1 chronic HCV. Clinical trials have shown response rates of around 70-80%, but there is limited data from the use of this combination outside(More)
Hepatitis B may cause a varying spectrum of diseases ranging from an asymptomatic or mild anicteric acute illness, to severe or fulminant hepatitis. Similarly, the outcome of chronic hepatitis B is variable. Viral factors associated with outcome of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection include hepatitis B e antigen status, HBV DNA, genotype, and HBV(More)
Hepatitis B vaccination is successful in 95% of individuals. In the remainder, despite repeated attempts, immunization often remains unsuccessful. 'Non-response' leaves the individual susceptible to infection. Various strategies have been employed to overcome this. These include the use of adjuncts alongside conventional vaccines which activate immune(More)
Bouveret's syndrome, first described in 1896 by Léon Bouveret, is rare, limited to approximately 200 published case reports to date [Ariche et al.: Scand J Gastroenterol 2000;35:781-783]. It is a subgroup of gallstone ileus in which a cholecystoduodenal fistula allows the passage of a gallstone that obstructs the duodenum, causing gastric outlet(More)
The availability of the direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) boceprevir and telaprevir provides improved treatment outcomes for many patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1. However, HCV infection must first be identified before a decision on treatment can be made and currently many patients remain unaware that they have the virus. Given(More)
Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) virus infection affects more than 170 million people globally. The aim of treatment of CHC is to affect sustained elimination of the virus (a sustained virological response [SVR]). The success and duration of therapy with interferon is dependent on HCV genotype. The current standard of care comprises combined treatment with(More)