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For several decades, the reactive gliosis that occurs after an injury to the CNS has been considered one of the major impediments to axonal regeneration. Nevertheless, recent studies have suggested that in certain conditions, reactive astrocytes may provide a permissive substratum to support axonal regrowth. The important criteria, allowing for the(More)
The extensor digitorum longus muscles of rat were stained for the localization of acetylcholinesterase activity at the neuromuscular junctions. The modified methods of Koelle-Friedenwald and Karnovsky-Roots were used with acetylthiocholine iodide as the substrate. The merits and demerits of both these methods are discussed. TEM and SEM X-ray dispersive(More)
This review provides an historical and current perspective on astrocytes in the CNS, detailing their morphological and biochemical diversity, origins and transformation to reactive astrocytes in experimental lesions and clinical disease states which result in gliosis. Recent studies on reactive astrocytes have been facilitated by the availability of(More)
A mouse monoclonal antibody (MAb J1-31, isotype IgG 2b) was raised against an autopsy sample of cerebral white matter from a multiple sclerosis (MS) patient. MAb J1-31 recognizes a protein (J1-31 antigen) in human brain which has a molecular weight of approximately 30,000 daltons (30 kD) as determined by immunoprecipitation followed by SDS-gel(More)
An Astrocyte-specific antigen recognized by monoclonal antibody J1-31 is a more intense marker for proximal reactive astrocytes in lacerated rat spinal cord than is glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Thus, MAb J1-31 recognizes reactive astrocytes in the immediate vicinity of the lesion, whereas reactive astrocytes that are located at a distance from(More)
The nonsynaptic sarcolemma of denervated skeletal muscle of rat shows an abundance of approximately 15 nm intramembranous particles on the P face. These particles are either singly distributed or are in clusters, and they are essentialy lacking from the comparable freeze-fractures of the innervated sarcolemma. Autoradiographic studies using(More)
The astroglial reaction following a laceration-type surgical lesion of rat spinal cord is recognized by hypertrophy of astrocytes. This phenomenon can be readily demonstrated by enhanced immunoreactivity for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and a recently discovered 30 kD protein (J1-31 antigen). The results reported in this article lead to the(More)
Glial cell lines (C6, a glioma and 9L, a gliosarcoma) grown in vitro produce type 1 collagen which is detectable in the extracellular matrix by immunocytochemistry. Northern blot analysis using a cDNA specific for the proalpha2 (I) chain of procollagen indicates the presence of a single transcript with an apparent size of 4.8 kb in the C6 cell line, whereas(More)