Sudan Prasad Neupane

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BACKGROUND The fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 5) established the goal of a 75% reduction in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR; number of maternal deaths per 100,000 livebirths) between 1990 and 2015. We aimed to measure levels and track trends in maternal mortality, the key causes contributing to maternal death, and timing of maternal death with(More)
BACKGROUND The Millennium Declaration in 2000 brought special global attention to HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria through the formulation of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 6. The Global Burden of Disease 2013 study provides a consistent and comprehensive approach to disease estimation for between 1990 and 2013, and an opportunity to assess whether(More)
BACKGROUND The Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) aims to bring together all available epidemiological data using a coherent measurement framework, standardised estimation methods, and transparent data sources to enable comparisons of health loss over time and across causes, age-sex groups, and countries. The GBD can be used to generate summary(More)
Neurodegenerative and inflammatory processes are involved separately in major depression (MD) and alcohol-use disorders (AUD). Little is known about the nature of this relationship in the context of comorbid AUD and depression disorders. In this study, we determined brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) serum levels in patients with AUD and tested(More)
OBJECTIVE Vitamin D plays a major role in Ca and bone metabolism, and its extraskeletal functions are being appraised. Although inadequate vitamin D concentrations have been reported in populations worldwide, too little is known about vitamin D status and its determinants among children in developing countries. We aimed to determine vitamin D status and its(More)
AIMS As major depression (MD) is often comorbid with alcohol-use disorders (AUD) and alcohol itself modulates the immune system, we examined serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and interferon (IFN)-γ in AUD patients with and without MD. Putative interactions between alcohol variables and MD on cytokine levels were also(More)
Background The scale-up of tobacco control, especially after the adoption of the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control, is a major public health success story. Nonetheless, smoking remains a leading risk for early death and disability worldwide, and therefore continues to require sustained political commitment. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries,(More)
BACKGROUND Activation of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism results in increased production of potentially depressogenic tryptophan catabolites and a reduction in tryptophan availability for serotonin synthesis. As alcohol consumption affects tryptophan metabolism and disposition, we determined serum levels of tryptophan, kynurenine, and an(More)
Alcohol is a known modulator of the innate immune system. Owing to the absence of human studies, alcohol's effect on circulating cytokine profile remains unclear. We investigated the effect of acute high dose alcohol consumption on systemic cytokine release. After an overnight fasting, alcohol-experienced healthy male volunteers (N = 20) aged 25-45 years(More)