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Calmodulin (CaM) regulates steady-state inactivation of sodium currents (Na(V)1.4) in skeletal muscle. Defects in Na current inactivation are associated with pathological muscle conditions such as myotonia and paralysis. The mechanisms of CaM modulation of expression and function of the Na channel are incompletely understood. A physical association between(More)
BACKGROUND Glucocorticoids are the mainstream drugs used in the treatment and control of inflammatory diseases such as asthma. Annexin-1 (ANXA1) is an anti-inflammatory protein which has been described as an endogenous protein responsible for some anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid effects. Previous studies have identified its importance in other immune(More)
OBJECTIVE Diabetic retinopathy displays the features of a neurodegenerative disease. Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. This investigation sought to determine whether hypertension exacerbates the oxidative stress, neurodegeneration, and mitochondrial dysfunction that exists in diabetic retinopathy and whether these(More)
AIMS The combination of hypertension and diabetes exacerbates renal oxidative stress. The aim of the present study was therefore to evaluate the pro-oxidant and antioxidant mechanisms responsible for the induction of renal oxidative stress in the presence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus. METHODS Diabetes was induced in spontaneously hypertensive(More)
The present study was undertaken to identify whether inflammation or oxidative stress is the primary abnormality in the kidney in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Renal inflammation and oxidative stress were evaluated in 2- and 3-week-old prehypertensive SHR and age-matched genetically normotensive control Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. Blood pressure was(More)
Mutations in the cytoplasmic tail (CT) of voltage gated sodium channels cause a spectrum of inherited diseases of cellular excitability, yet to date only one mutation in the CT of the human skeletal muscle voltage gated sodium channel (hNaV1.4F1705I) has been linked to cold aggravated myotonia. The functional effects of altered regulation of hNaV1.4F1705I(More)
PURPOSE To establish the key insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) structural elements required in this insulin regulatory pathway, we investigated the effects of substituting alanine for serine 307 in IRS-1 on the ability of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and a related mediator, suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), to phosphorylate IRS-1 and(More)
Intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)) can trigger dual-mode regulation of the voltage gated cardiac sodium channel (Na(V)1.5). The channel components of the Ca(2+) regulatory system are the calmodulin (CaM)-binding IQ motif and the Ca(2+) sensing EF hand-like (EFL) motif in the carboxyl terminus of the channel. Mutations in either motif have been associated(More)
The aim of this literature review was to provide advance research information for the future scientists to discover new drug molecules from the medicinal plant, Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae). The plant provides a rich and rare combination of zeatin, quercetin, beta-sitosterol and kaempferol. In addition to its high nutritional value, Moringa oleifera(More)