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BACKGROUND The Avahan Initiative, a large-scale HIV preventive intervention targeted to high-risk populations including female sex workers (FSWs), was initiated in 2003 in six high-prevalence states in India, including Karnataka. This study assessed if intervention exposure was associated with condom use with FSWs' sexual partners, including a dose-response(More)
OBJECTIVES A key indicator of success of HIV prevention programmes is the number of female sex worker (FSW) sex acts protected by condoms. This measure usually relies on FSW reports, which may be biased. We examined condom availability data in five Karnataka districts to estimate the proportion of FSW sex acts potentially protected by condoms. METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND In the context of AVAHAN, the India AIDS Initiative of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, general population surveys (GPS) were carried out between 2006 and 2008 in Belgaum (northern), Bellary (mid-state) and Mysore (southern) districts of Karnataka state, south India. Data from these three surveys were analysed to understand heterogeneity in(More)
BACKGROUND Although female sex workers (FSWs) report high levels of condom use with commercial sex clients, particularly after targeted HIV preventive interventions have been implemented, condom use is often low with non-commercial partners. There is limited understanding regarding the factors that influence condom use with FSWs' non-commercial partners,(More)
BACKGROUND Condoms are effective in preventing the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, when properly used. However, recent data from surveys of female sex workers (FSWs) in Karnataka in south India, suggest that condom breakage rates may be quite high. It is important therefore to quantify condom breakage rates, and examine what(More)
Sexual behaviour studies are often challenged by sampling, participation and measurement biases, and may be unacceptable to participants. We invited 293 randomly selected female sex workers (FSWs) in Bangalore, India, to participate in a telephone survey, with condom breakage as the main outcome. Free cell phones were supplied and trained interviewers(More)
OBJECTIVES The purpose of the study was to obtain a better understanding of the relative importance of personal factors, male partner factors and situational factors, in determining condom breakage in a population of female sex workers (FSWs) in Bangalore. METHODS The authors conducted a cross-sectional study that included a face-to-face interview and(More)
BACKGROUND As one way of assessing the impact of Avahan, the India AIDS Initiative of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, we examined the association between HIV prevention program indicators and changes in HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs) between 2005 and 2009. METHODS We conducted a secondary data analysis from 2 large cross-sectional(More)
We examined condom breakage rates and predictors of breakage in a prospective telephone-based study of female sex workers (FSWs) in Bangalore, India. We obtained data on 3,257 condom-use sex acts, and breakage occurred in 2.1 % of these. Situational factors, especially those associated with male clients' behaviors, were the most important predictors of(More)
OBJECTIVES This paper examined trends over time in condom use, and the prevalences of HIV and syphilis, among female sex workers (FSWs) in South India. DESIGN Data from three rounds of cross-sectional surveys were analysed, with HIV and high-titre syphilis prevalence as outcome variables. Multivariable analysis was applied to examine changes in prevalence(More)