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Members of the NADPH oxidase (NOX) family of enzymes, which catalyze the reduction of O(2) to reactive oxygen species, have increased in number during eukaryotic evolution. Seven isoforms of the NOX gene family have been identified in mammals; however, specific roles of NOX enzymes in mammalian physiology and pathophysiology have not been fully elucidated.(More)
Multiple, complex molecular events characterize cancer development and progression. Deciphering the molecular networks that distinguish organ-confined disease from metastatic disease may lead to the identification of critical biomarkers for cancer invasion and disease aggressiveness. Although gene and protein expression have been extensively profiled in(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by a loss of ventral midbrain dopaminergic neurons, which can be modeled by the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Inflammatory oxidants have emerged as key contributors to PD- and MPTP-related neurodegeneration. Here, we show that myeloperoxidase (MPO), a key oxidant-producing enzyme(More)
1 OBJECTIVE—Neuropathy is a frequent and severe complication of diabetes. Multiple metabolic defects in type 2 diabetic patients result in oxidative injury of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. Our previous work focused on hyperglycemia clearly demonstrates induction of mitochondrial oxidative stress and acute injury in DRG neurons; however, this mechanism(More)
Blood lipid levels are heritable, treatable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. We systematically assessed genome-wide coding variation to identify new genes influencing lipid traits, fine map known lipid loci and evaluate whether low-frequency variants with large effects exist for these traits. Using an exome array, we genotyped 80,137 coding variants(More)
Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer related death in American men. Development and progression of clinically localized prostate cancer is highly dependent on androgen signaling. Metastatic tumors are initially responsive to anti-androgen therapy, however become resistant to this regimen upon progression. Genomic and proteomic studies have(More)
BACKGROUND Boosting low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels is a current strategy for preventing clinical events that result from cardiovascular disease. We previously showed that HDL(3) of subjects with coronary artery disease is enriched in apolipoprotein E and that the lipoprotein carries a distinct protein cargo. This observation suggests that altered(More)
Weight gain induced by an energy-dense diet is hypothesized to arise in part from defects in the neuronal response to circulating adiposity negative feedback signals, such as insulin. Peripheral tissue insulin resistance involves cellular inflammatory responses thought to be invoked by excess lipid. Therefore, we sought to determine whether similar(More)
Progress in developing treatments for diabetic neuropathy is slowed by our limited understanding of how disturbances in metabolic substrates - glucose and fatty acids - produce nerve injury. In this review, we present the current oxidative stress hypothesis and experimental data that support it. We identify weaknesses in our understanding of(More)
The endothelial dysfunction of Fabry disease results from α-galactosidase A deficiency leading to the accumulation of globotriaosylceramide. Vasculopathy in the α-galactosidase A null mouse is manifested as oxidant-induced thrombosis, accelerated atherogenesis, and impaired arterial reactivity. To better understand the pathogenesis of Fabry disease in(More)