In this paper we describe the channel impairments and equalization methods currently used in WiFi, WiMax and WCDMA. After a review of channel model for Intelligent Transportation System (ITS), we proposed an equalization method which will be useful for the estimation of strong multipath channel at a high velocity.
Quantization index modulation (QIM) watermarking proposed by Chen and Wornell provides computational efficient blind watermarking based on Costa's dirty paper codes. The limitation of this is its vulnerability against amplitude scaling distortion. The present work is proposed to solve this problem based on angle QIM within spread transform dither modulation… (More)
A Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) is a dynamic wireless network that can be formed without the need for any pre-existing infrastructure in which each node can act as a router. One of the main challenges of MANET is the design of robust routing algorithms that adapt to the frequent and randomly changing network topology. A variety of routing protocols have… (More)
A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a network consisting of a set of wireless mobile nodes that communicate with each other without centralized control or established infrastructure. The mobility model represents the moving behavior of each mobile node (MN) in the MANET that should be realistic. It is a crucial part in the performance evaluation of MANET. In… (More)
This article presents a framework to hybridize the rough set theory with a famous swarm intelligence algorithm known as Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The hybrid rough-PSO technique has been used for grouping the pixels of an image in its intensity space. Medical and remote sensing satellite images become corrupted with noise very often. Fast and… (More)
These days, with technological advancement, it is very easy for miscreants to produce illegal multimedia data copies. Various techniques of copyright protection of free data are being developed daily. Digital watermarking is one such technique, where digital embedding of the copyright information/watermark into the data to be protected. The two major ways… (More)
—Digital watermarking is a way to provide the facility of secure multimedia data communication besides its copyright protection approach. The Spread Spectrum modulation principle is widely used in digital watermarking to satisfy the robustness of multimedia signals against various signal-processing operations. Several SS watermarking algorithms have been… (More)