Subir Karmakar

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NKT cells respond to presentation of specific glycolipids with release of both Th1- and Th2-type cytokines. Leishmania donovani (LD)-infected splenic macrophages (sMϕ(I)) and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC(I)) failed to activate NKT cells in response to α-galactosyl ceramide (α-GalCer). The defective antigen presentation could be corrected by(More)
Resistance to murine visceral leishmaniasis (VL) correlates with the development of an IFN-γ predominant immune response. Beta1,4-galactose terminal glycans are potent inducers of IFN-γ. Here, we demonstrate the efficacy of a 29 kDa β1,4-galactose terminal glycoprotein (GP29) of Leishmania donovani (LD) in an in vitro macrophage model and an in vivo mouse(More)
OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to investigate and characterize the efficacy of asiaticoside in an experimental model of visceral leishmaniasis caused by antimony-susceptible (AG83) and -resistant (GE1F8R and K39) Leishmania donovani. METHODS The effect of asiaticoside was evaluated by microscopic counting of intracellular amastigotes in cultured(More)
Surface antigens on Leishmania promastigotes and infected macrophages are obvious targets in immunoprophylaxis for leishmanial infection. The glycophosphosphingolipid (GSPL) antigen isolated from Leishmania donovani surface membrane was recognized by sera from patients with visceral leishmaniasis. GSPL was also expressed on the membrane of parasite-infected(More)
As compared to cutaneous leishmaniasis, vaccination against visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has received limited attention. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that an UDP-Galactose: N-acetylglucosamine β 1–4 galactosyltransferase (GenBank Accession No. EF159943) expressing attenuated LD clonal population (A-LD) is able to confer protection against(More)
NKT cells play an important role in autoimmune diseases, tumor surveillance, and infectious diseases, providing in most cases protection against infection. NKT cells are reactive to CD1d presented glycolipid antigens. They can modulate immune responses by promoting the secretion of type 1, type 2, or immune regulatory cytokines. Pathogen-derived signals to(More)
In vitro and in vivo anti-leishmanial efficacy of copper salisylaldoxime (CuSAL), a transition metal complex, was evaluated and the underlying mechanism was studied. In vitro studies revealed that 30 μM of CuSAL causes 96% reduction in parasite burden in infected macrophages. CuSAL is least toxic in host cells. A dose of 5 mg/kg bodyweight per mice on(More)
No vaccine exists against visceral leishmaniasis. To develop effective vaccines, we have previously reported protective role of live attenuated centrin gene-deleted Leishmania donovani (LdCen-/- ) parasites through induction of Th1 type immune response in mice, hamsters, and dogs. In this study, we specifically explored the role of Th17 cells in LdCen-/-(More)
Leishmania donovani parasites are the cause of visceral leishmaniasis and are transmitted by bites from phlebotomine sand flies. A prominent feature of vector-transmitted Leishmania is the persistence of neutrophils at bite sites, where they protect captured parasites, leading to enhanced disease. Here, we demonstrate that gut microbes from the sand fly are(More)
Glutamyl-queuosine tRNA(Asp) synthetase (Glu-Q-RS) from Escherichia coli is a paralog of the catalytic core of glutamyl-tRNA synthetase (GluRS) that catalyzes glutamylation of queuosine in the wobble position of tRNA(Asp). Despite important structural similarities, Glu-Q-RS and GluRS diverge strongly by their functional properties. The only feature common(More)
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