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Naive CD4⁺ T cells can differentiate into specific helper and regulatory T cell lineages in order to combat infection and disease. The correct response to cytokines and a controlled balance of these populations is critical for the immune system and the avoidance of autoimmune disorders. To investigate how early cell-fate commitment is regulated, we(More)
Th17 cells play an essential role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Most of our current understanding on Th17 cell differentiation relies on studies carried out in mice, whereas the molecular mechanisms controlling human Th17 cell differentiation are less well defined. In this study, we identified gene expression changes(More)
Whole plant methanolic extracts of 14 traditionally used medicinal herbs were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity. Extracts of Grindelia robusta, Salix nigra, Arnica montana, and Quassia amara showed up to 4.5-fold inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production in the J774 murine macrophage cells challenged with LPS without cytotoxicity. These four(More)
IL-12 and IL-18 are essential for Th1 differentiation, whereas the role of IFN-alpha in Th1 development is less understood. In this microarray-based study, we searched for genes that are regulated by IFN-alpha, IL-12, or the combination of IL-12 plus IL-18 during the early differentiation of human umbilical cord blood CD4(+) Th cells. Twenty-six genes were(More)
Although genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified hundreds of variants associated with a risk for autoimmune and immune-related disorders (AID), our understanding of the disease mechanisms is still limited. In particular, more than 90% of the risk variants lie in non-coding regions, and almost 10% of these map to long non-coding RNA(More)
Early regulators of disease may increase understanding of disease mechanisms and serve as markers for presymptomatic diagnosis and treatment. However, early regulators are difficult to identify because patients generally present after they are symptomatic. We hypothesized that early regulators of T cell-associated diseases could be found by identifying(More)
MOTIVATION Gene expression profiling using RNA-seq is a powerful technique for screening RNA species' landscapes and their dynamics in an unbiased way. While several advanced methods exist for differential expression analysis of RNA-seq data, proper tools to anal.yze RNA-seq time-course have not been proposed. RESULTS In this study, we use RNA-seq to(More)
Combined with TCR stimuli, extracellular cytokine signals initiate the differentiation of naive CD4(+) T cells into specialized effector T-helper (Th) and regulatory T (Treg) cell subsets. The lineage specification and commitment process occurs through the combinatorial action of multiple transcription factors (TFs) and epigenetic mechanisms that drive(More)
Sepsis and/or systemic inflammatory response syndrome are leading causes of death in intensive care unit patients. NO is a critical player in the pathogenesis of bacterial sepsis. Several studies demonstrate elevation of iNOS in LPS-induced acute inflammatory responses and mortality; however, the effectiveness of its therapeutic suppression in systemic(More)
Canthaxanthin (cx) is a potent antioxidant that is chemically synthesized at the industrial scale and has imperative applications in the cosmetic and feed industries. An orange pigmented mesophilic bacterium, designated as K44, was isolated from soil samples of Kargil, India. Biochemical tests, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and FAME analysis of the bacterium(More)