Subhash Lele

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OBJECTIVES Rainfall and runoff have been implicated in site-specific waterborne disease outbreaks. Because upward trends in heavy precipitation in the United States are projected to increase with climate change, this study sought to quantify the relationship between precipitation and disease outbreaks. METHODS The US Environmental Protection Agency(More)
Rather than benefiting wild fish, industrial aquaculture may contribute to declines in ocean fisheries and ecosystems. Farm salmon are commonly infected with salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis), which are native ectoparasitic copepods. We show that recurrent louse infestations of wild juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha), all associated with(More)
Analysis of biological forms using landmark data has received substantial attention recently. Much of the statistical work in this area has concentrated on the estimation of average form, average form difference, and average growth difference. From the statistical, as well as the scientific point of view, it is important that any estimate of a(More)
Euclidean Distance Matrix Analysis (EDMA) of form is a coordinate free approach to the analysis o f form using landmark data. In this paper, the problem of estimation of mean form, variancecovariance matrix, and mean form difference under the Gaussian perturbation model is considered using EDMA. The suggested estimators are based on the method of moments.(More)
For problems of classification and comparison in biological research, the primary focus is on the similarity of forms. A biological form can be conveniently defined as consisting of size and shape. Several approaches for comparing biological shapes using landmark data are available. Lele (1991a) critically discusses these approaches and proposes a new(More)
Anatomical landmarks are defined as biologically meaningful loci that can be unambiguously defined and repeatedly located with a high degree of accuracy and precision. The neurocranial surface is characteristically void of such loci. We define a new class of landmarks, termed fuzzy landmarks, that will allow us to represent the form of the neurocranium. A(More)
Developmental biology holds keys to our understanding of morphological pattern formation whether these patterns are expressed in the fossil record or among extant species. Though much is known about osseous growth at the cellular level (e.g. Hall, 1991), we have minimal understanding of the coordinated processes that combine to produce a complex,(More)
While malaria transmission varies seasonally, large inter-annual heterogeneity of malaria incidence occurs. Variability in entomological parameters, biting rates and entomological inoculation rates (EIR) have been strongly associated with attack rates in children. The goal of this study was to assess the weather's impact on weekly biting and EIR in the(More)
The goal of this study is to characterize the differences between normal cranial morphology and that of patients diagnosed with isolated sagittal synostosis, using three-dimensional (3D) landmark coordinate data collected from computed tomography (CT) scans. This retrospective study uses pre-operative CT images of a sample of children diagnosed with(More)
The unusual strategy for comparing biological shapes is to use some kind of superimposition of the two forms under study and then look at the "residuals" as the shape change. In this paper, I take a careful look at this general strategy and point out some subtle but inherent and important pitfalls. Additionally an alternative approach based on Euclidean(More)