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The violet- and ultraviolet-sensitive visual pigments of birds belong to the same class of pigments as the violet-sensitive (so-called blue) pigments of mammals. However, unlike the pigments from mammals and other vertebrate taxa which, depending on species, have lambda(max) values of either around 430 nm or around 370 nm, avian pigments are found with(More)
Previous electrophysiological evidence has indicated that astrocytes and oligodendrocytes express inwardly rectifying K(+) channels both in vitro and in vivo. Here, for the first time, we have undertaken light microscopic immunohistochemical studies demonstrating the location of one such channel, Kir4.1, in both cell types in regions of the rat CNS. Some(More)
The cottoid fishes of Lake Baikal in eastern Siberia provide a unique opportunity to study the evolution of visual pigments in a group of closely related species exposed to different photic environments. Members of this species flock are adapted to different depth habitats down to >1000 m, and both the rod and cone visual pigments display short wave shifts(More)
The short-wave-sensitive (SWS) visual pigments of vertebrate cone photoreceptors are divided into two classes on the basis of molecular identity, SWS1 and SWS2. Only the SWS1 class are present in mammals. The SWS1 pigments can be further subdivided into violet-sensitive (VS), with lambda(max) (the peak of maximal absorbance) values generally between 400 and(More)
As part of an ongoing search to identify novel mammalian photopigments that may mediate nonvisual tasks such as circadian entrainment and acute suppression of pineal melatonin levels, a number of recently cloned nonvisual opsin sequences were used to search dbEST. panopsin (OPN3) was one of the clones identified using this approach. Expression analysis(More)
Toward understanding topographically specific branching of retinal axons in their target area, we have studied the interaction between neurotrophin receptors and members of the Eph family. TrkB and its ligand BDNF are uniformly expressed in the retina and tectum, respectively, and exert a branch-promoting activity, whereas EphAs and ephrinAs are expressed(More)
PURPOSE To identify the underlying mutations in two unrelated British families with macular corneal dystrophy (MCD) by screening the carbohydrate sulfotransferase (CHST6) gene. DESIGN Case reports and results of DNA analysis. METHODS Two subjects from two British families with MCD were studied. The genetic status of CHST6 was determined for all members(More)
The heat-shock protein 70 chaperone machine is functionally connected to the ubiquitin-proteasome system by the co-chaperone CHIP. In this article, we discuss evidence that the neuronal DnaJ proteins HSJ1a and HSJ1b may represent a further link between the cellular protein folding and degradation machineries. We have demonstrated that HSJ1 proteins contain(More)
X-linked congenital stationary night blindness (CSNBX) is a genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous non-progressive disorder, characterised by impaired night vision but grossly normal retinal appearance. Other more variable features include reduction in visual acuity, myopia, nystagmus and strabismus. Genetic mapping studies by other groups, and our(More)
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling is essential for both olfactory bulb (OB) morphogenesis and the specification, migration, and maturation of the GnRH-secreting neurons. Disruption of FGF signaling contributes to Kallmann syndrome characterized by both anosmia and sexual immaturity. However, several unanswered questions remain as to which specific(More)