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The violet- and ultraviolet-sensitive visual pigments of birds belong to the same class of pigments as the violet-sensitive (so-called blue) pigments of mammals. However, unlike the pigments from mammals and other vertebrate taxa which, depending on species, have lambda(max) values of either around 430 nm or around 370 nm, avian pigments are found with(More)
Previous electrophysiological evidence has indicated that astrocytes and oligodendrocytes express inwardly rectifying K(+) channels both in vitro and in vivo. Here, for the first time, we have undertaken light microscopic immunohistochemical studies demonstrating the location of one such channel, Kir4.1, in both cell types in regions of the rat CNS. Some(More)
The short-wave-sensitive (SWS) visual pigments of vertebrate cone photoreceptors are divided into two classes on the basis of molecular identity, SWS1 and SWS2. Only the SWS1 class are present in mammals. The SWS1 pigments can be further subdivided into violet-sensitive (VS), with lambda(max) (the peak of maximal absorbance) values generally between 400 and(More)
Toward understanding topographically specific branching of retinal axons in their target area, we have studied the interaction between neurotrophin receptors and members of the Eph family. TrkB and its ligand BDNF are uniformly expressed in the retina and tectum, respectively, and exert a branch-promoting activity, whereas EphAs and ephrinAs are expressed(More)
The cottoid fishes of Lake Baikal in eastern Siberia provide a unique opportunity to study the evolution of visual pigments in a group of closely related species exposed to different photic environments. Members of this species flock are adapted to different depth habitats down to >1000 m, and both the rod and cone visual pigments display short wave shifts(More)
As part of an ongoing search to identify novel mammalian photopigments that may mediate nonvisual tasks such as circadian entrainment and acute suppression of pineal melatonin levels, a number of recently cloned nonvisual opsin sequences were used to search dbEST. panopsin (OPN3) was one of the clones identified using this approach. Expression analysis(More)
The heat-shock protein 70 chaperone machine is functionally connected to the ubiquitin-proteasome system by the co-chaperone CHIP. In this article, we discuss evidence that the neuronal DnaJ proteins HSJ1a and HSJ1b may represent a further link between the cellular protein folding and degradation machineries. We have demonstrated that HSJ1 proteins contain(More)
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling is essential for both olfactory bulb (OB) morphogenesis and the specification, migration, and maturation of the GnRH-secreting neurons. Disruption of FGF signaling contributes to Kallmann syndrome characterized by both anosmia and sexual immaturity. However, several unanswered questions remain as to which specific(More)
Sensitivity to ultraviolet light (UV) is achieved by photoreceptors in the eye that contain a class of visual pigments maximally sensitive to light at wavelengths <400 nm. It is widespread in the animal kingdom where it is used for mate choice, communication and foraging for food. UV sensitivity is not, however, a constant feature of the visual system, and(More)
Of the four classes of vertebrate cone visual pigments, the shortwave-sensitive SWS1 class shows the shortest lambda(max) values with peaks in different species in either the violet (390-435 nm) or ultraviolet (around 365 nm) regions of the spectrum. Phylogenetic evidence indicates that the ancestral pigment was probably UV-sensitive (UVS) and that the(More)