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Highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza A viruses occasionally infect humans, but currently do not transmit efficiently among humans. The viral haemagglutinin (HA) protein is a known host-range determinant as it mediates virus binding to host-specific cellular receptors. Here we assess the molecular changes in HA that would allow a virus possessing subtype(More)
Dicer is essential for plant, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Drosophila antiviral responses because of its role in generating small interfering RNA (siRNA) from viral genomes. We show that because of impaired miRNA production, mice with a variant Dicer1 allele (Dicer1(d/d)) were more susceptible to vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection. We did not detect(More)
Human pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus rapidly infected millions worldwide and was associated with significant mortality. Antiviral drugs that inhibit influenza virus replication are the primary therapy used to diminish disease; however, there are two significant limitations to their effective use: (i) antiviral drugs exert selective pressure on the(More)
The phosphoprotein (P protein) of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is an essential subunit of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and has multiple functions residing in its different domains. In the present study, we examined the role of the hypervariable hinge region of P protein in viral RNA synthesis and recovery of infectious VSV by using(More)
The phosphoprotein (P) of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a subunit of the viral RNA polymerase. In previous studies, we demonstrated that insertion of 19 amino acids in the hinge region of the protein had no significant effect on P protein function. In the present study, we inserted full-length enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) in frame into(More)
A recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV-PeGFP-M-MmRFP) encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein fused in frame with P (PeGFP) in place of P and a fusion matrix protein (monomeric red fluorescent protein fused in frame at the carboxy terminus of M [MmRFP]) at the G-L gene junction, in addition to wild-type (wt) M protein in its normal location, was(More)
Currently available influenza vaccines provide suboptimal protection. In order to improve the quality of protective immune responses elicited following vaccination, we developed an oil-in-water nanoemulsion (NE)-based adjuvant for an intranasally-delivered inactivated influenza vaccine. Using a prime-boost vaccination regimen, we show that intranasal(More)
The phosphoprotein (P) of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is an essential subunit of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) complex. It is phosphorylated at two different domains. Using defective interfering (DI) RNA or minigenomic RNA templates, we previously demonstrated that phosphorylation within the amino-terminal domain I is essential for(More)
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is associated with several human cancers. Latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) is one of the key viral proteins required for transformation of primary B cells in vitro and establishment of EBV latency. In this report, we show that LMP-1 is able to induce the expression of several interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes (ISGs) with(More)
The nucleocapsid (N) protein of all morbilliviruses has a highly conserved central region that is thought to interact with and encapsidate the viral RNA. The C-terminal third of the N protein is highly variable among morbilliviruses and is thought to be located on the outer surface and to be available to interact with other viral proteins such as the(More)