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Highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza A viruses occasionally infect humans, but currently do not transmit efficiently among humans. The viral haemagglutinin (HA) protein is a known host-range determinant as it mediates virus binding to host-specific cellular receptors. Here we assess the molecular changes in HA that would allow a virus possessing subtype(More)
Dicer is essential for plant, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Drosophila antiviral responses because of its role in generating small interfering RNA (siRNA) from viral genomes. We show that because of impaired miRNA production, mice with a variant Dicer1 allele (Dicer1(d/d)) were more susceptible to vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection. We did not detect(More)
The phosphoprotein (P protein) of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is an essential subunit of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and has multiple functions residing in its different domains. In the present study, we examined the role of the hypervariable hinge region of P protein in viral RNA synthesis and recovery of infectious VSV by using(More)
The phosphoprotein (P) of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is an essential subunit of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) complex. It is phosphorylated at two different domains. Using defective interfering (DI) RNA or minigenomic RNA templates, we previously demonstrated that phosphorylation within the amino-terminal domain I is essential for(More)
Human pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus rapidly infected millions worldwide and was associated with significant mortality. Antiviral drugs that inhibit influenza virus replication are the primary therapy used to diminish disease; however, there are two significant limitations to their effective use: (i) antiviral drugs exert selective pressure on the(More)
Currently available influenza vaccines provide suboptimal protection. In order to improve the quality of protective immune responses elicited following vaccination, we developed an oil-in-water nanoemulsion (NE)-based adjuvant for an intranasally-delivered inactivated influenza vaccine. Using a prime-boost vaccination regimen, we show that intranasal(More)
A recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV-PeGFP-M-MmRFP) encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein fused in frame with P (PeGFP) in place of P and a fusion matrix protein (monomeric red fluorescent protein fused in frame at the carboxy terminus of M [MmRFP]) at the G-L gene junction, in addition to wild-type (wt) M protein in its normal location, was(More)
A biologically contained influenza A virus that stably expresses a foreign gene can be effectively traced, used to generate a novel multivalent vaccine and have its replication easily assessed, all while satisfying safety concerns regarding pathogenicity or reversion. This study generated a PB2-knockout (PB2-KO) influenza virus that harboured the GFP(More)
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) has recently emerged as a major public health concern across the Asian-Pacific region. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) are the primary causative agents of HFMD, but other members of the Enterovirus A species, including Coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6), can cause disease. The lack of small animal models for(More)
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is associated with several human cancers. Latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) is one of the key viral proteins required for transformation of primary B cells in vitro and establishment of EBV latency. In this report, we show that LMP-1 is able to induce the expression of several interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes (ISGs) with(More)