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The habenular complex of the epithalamus in the mammalian brain receives input from the limbic forebrain and pallidum and, in turn, projects to numerous midbrain structures. Traditionally, the habenular complex is divided into the medial nucleus and two divisions of the lateral nucleus. Based on their distinct input and output pathways, the habenula is(More)
Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) ameliorates motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease, but the precise mechanism is still unknown. Here, using a large animal (pig) model of human STN DBS neurosurgery, we utilized fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in combination with a carbon-fiber microelectrode (CFM) implanted into the striatum to monitor(More)
OBJECT High-frequency stimulation (HFS) delivered through implanted electrodes in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has become an established treatment for Parkinson disease (PD). The precise mechanism of action of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the STN is unknown, however. In the present study, the authors tested the hypothesis that HFS within the STN changes(More)
OBJECT The authors of previous studies have demonstrated that local adenosine efflux may contribute to the therapeutic mechanism of action of thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) for essential tremor. Real-time monitoring of the neurochemical output of DBS-targeted regions may thus advance functional neurosurgical procedures by identifying candidate(More)
BACKGROUND Several neurological disorders are treated with deep brain stimulation; however, the mechanism underlying its ability to abolish oscillatory phenomena associated with diseases as diverse as Parkinson's disease and epilepsy remain largely unknown. OBJECTIVE To investigate the role of specific neurotransmitters in deep brain stimulation and(More)
Current strategies for optimizing deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy involve multiple postoperative visits. During each visit, stimulation parameters are adjusted until desired therapeutic effects are achieved and adverse effects are minimized. However, the efficacy of these therapeutic parameters may decline with time due at least in part to disease(More)
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery has been performed in over 75,000 people worldwide, and has been shown to be an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease, tremor, dystonia, epilepsy, depression, Tourette's syndrome, and obsessive compulsive disorder. We review current and emerging evidence for the role of DBS in the management of a range of(More)
Essential tremor is often markedly reduced during deep brain stimulation simply by implanting the stimulating electrode before activating neurostimulation. Referred to as the microthalamotomy effect, the mechanisms of this unexpected consequence are thought to be related to microlesioning targeted brain tissue, that is, a microscopic version of tissue(More)
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is effective when there appears to be a distortion in the complex neurochemical circuitry of the brain. Currently, the mechanism of DBS is incompletely understood; however, it has been hypothesized that DBS evokes release of neurochemicals. Well-established chemical detection systems such as microdialysis and mass spectrometry(More)
Histamine is among the most poorly understood biogenic amines, yet the histaminergic system spreads throughout the brain and has been implicated in functions as diverse as homeostasis and synaptic plasticity. Not surprisingly then, it has been linked to a number of conditions including minimally conscious state, persistent vegetative state, epilepsy,(More)