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The habenular complex of the epithalamus in the mammalian brain receives input from the limbic forebrain and pallidum and, in turn, projects to numerous midbrain structures. Traditionally, the habenular complex is divided into the medial nucleus and two divisions of the lateral nucleus. Based on their distinct input and output pathways, the habenula is(More)
OBJECT High-frequency stimulation (HFS) delivered through implanted electrodes in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has become an established treatment for Parkinson disease (PD). The precise mechanism of action of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the STN is unknown, however. In the present study, the authors tested the hypothesis that HFS within the STN changes(More)
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery has been performed in over 75,000 people worldwide, and has been shown to be an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease, tremor, dystonia, epilepsy, depression, Tourette's syndrome, and obsessive compulsive disorder. We review current and emerging evidence for the role of DBS in the management of a range of(More)
The activation of inhibitory synapses typically suppresses the generation of action potentials by hyperpolarizing the membrane of postsynaptic cells. In contrast to such conventional action of inhibitory synapses, we report here the ionic mechanism through which hyperpolarizing synapses trigger long-lasting discharges of action potentials that persist up to(More)
OBJECT The authors of previous studies have demonstrated that local adenosine efflux may contribute to the therapeutic mechanism of action of thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) for essential tremor. Real-time monitoring of the neurochemical output of DBS-targeted regions may thus advance functional neurosurgical procedures by identifying candidate(More)
Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) ameliorates motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease, but the precise mechanism is still unknown. Here, using a large animal (pig) model of human STN DBS neurosurgery, we utilized fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in combination with a carbon-fiber microelectrode (CFM) implanted into the striatum to monitor(More)
A significant drop of tissue pH or acidosis is a common feature of acute neurological conditions such as ischemic stroke, brain trauma, and epileptic seizures. Acid-sensing ion channels, or ASICs, are proton-gated cation channels widely expressed in peripheral sensory neurons and in the neurons of the central nervous system. Recent studies have demonstrated(More)
Current strategies for optimizing deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy involve multiple postoperative visits. During each visit, stimulation parameters are adjusted until desired therapeutic effects are achieved and adverse effects are minimized. However, the efficacy of these therapeutic parameters may decline with time due at least in part to disease(More)
The combination of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and functional MRI (fMRI) is a powerful means of tracing brain circuitry and testing the modulatory effects of electrical stimulation on a neuronal network in vivo. The goal of this study was to trace DBS-induced global neuronal network activation in a large animal model by monitoring the blood oxygenation(More)
Molecules that govern the formation, integrity, and function of the hippocampus remain an important area of investigation. Here we show that absence of the proneuropeptide processing enzyme, carboxypeptidase E (CPE) in CPE knock-out (KO) mice had a profound effect on memory, synaptic physiology, and the cytoarchitecture of the hippocampus in these animals.(More)