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The mechanism of the anti-beta-adrenergic action of acetylcholine (ACh) on Ca current, ICa, was examined using the tight-seal, whole-cell voltage clamp technique in single atrial myocytes from the bullfrog. Both isoproterenol (ISO) and forskolin increased ICa dose dependently. After ICa had been enhanced maximally by ISO (10(-6) M), subsequent application(More)
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is well-known as the receptor of thiazolidinedione antidiabetic drugs. In this paper, we present a successful example of employing structure-based virtual screening, a method that combines shape-based database search with a docking study and analogue search, to discover a novel family of PPARgamma(More)
Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) is a valid drug target for type-2 diabetes and DPP-IV inhibitors have been proven to efficiently improve glucose tolerance. In our study, 3D pharmacophore models were generated using a training set of 22 DPP-IV inhibitors. The best model consisted of important chemical features and mapped well into the active site of DPP-IV.(More)
Type 2 diabetes has rapidly reached an epidemic proportion becoming a major threat to global public health. PPAR agonists have emerged as a leading class of oral antidiabetic drugs. We report a structure biology analysis of novel indole-based PPAR agonists to explain the structure-activity relationships and present a critical analysis of reasons for change(More)
The severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) 3C-like protease (3CL(pro) or M(pro)) is an attractive target for the development of anti-SARS drugs because of its crucial role in the viral life cycle. In this study, a compound database was screened by the structure-based virtual screening approach to identify initial hits as(More)
The interactions between the tumor suppressor protein p21WAF1 and the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) complexes and with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) regulate and coordinate the processes of cell-cycle progression and DNA replication. We present the x-ray crystal structure of PCNA complexed with a 16-mer peptide related to p21 that binds with a(More)
The synthesis and structure-activity relationship studies of novel indole derivatives as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists are reported. Indole, a drug-like scaffold, was studied as a core skeleton for the acidic head part of PPAR agonists. The structural features (acidic head, substitution on indole, and linker) were optimized(More)
Following the identification through virtual screening of 4-(2,4-dimethyl-thiazol-5-yl)pyrimidin-2-ylamines as moderately potent inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinase-2 (CDK2), a CDK inhibitor analogue program was initiated. The first aims were to optimize potency and to evaluate the cellular mode of action of lead candidate molecules. Here the synthetic(More)
The Asp-Phe-Gly (DFG) motif plays an important role in the regulation of kinase activity. Structure-based drug design was performed to design compounds able to interact with the DFG motif; epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was selected as an example. Structural insights obtained from the EGFR/2a complex suggested that an extension from the(More)
1. Whole-cell patch recordings were made from substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons in transverse lumbar spinal cord slices of 15- to 30-day-old rats. 2. Endomorphin 1 (EM-1) or EM-2 (<or=10 microM) hyperpolarized or induced an outward current in 26 of the 66 SG neurons. The I-V relationship showed that the peptide activates an inwardly rectifying K+ current.(More)