Cardiac trauma has been recognized as a complication associated with blunt chest trauma involving coronary artery injury, myocardium contusion and myocardial rupture. Secondary cardiac injuries after trauma supposed to be a critical factor in trauma patients, but the mechanism is not fully explored. Overproduction of TNF-alpha had been reported in multiple… (More)
Recently, a survey by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported that nearly 90% of U.S. adult smokers began smoking at the age of 18. This demonstrates that the exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) of youngsters today is changing from passive smoking to active smoking (direct inhalation of tobacco). In the current study, an… (More)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0165406.].