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Shear stress, especially low shear stress (LowSS), plays an important role in vascular remodeling during atherosclerosis. Endothelial cells (ECs), which are directly exposed to shear stress, convert mechanical stimuli into intracellular signals and interact with the underlying vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The interactions between ECs and VSMCs(More)
A NEW MODEL OF MITOCHONDRIAL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION IS PROPOSED ON THE BASIS OF FOUR FUNDAMENTAL ASSUMPTIONS: (a) electrons and protons are separated in the electron transfer complexes; (b) the ATPase undergoes conformational state-transitions induced by an electric field; (c) energy is transferred by an electric field effect; and (d) a conformationally(More)
The accumulation of beta amyloid (Aβ) can cause synaptic impairments, but the characteristics and mechanisms of the synaptic impairment induced by the accumulation of Aβ in Alzheimer's disease (AD) remain unclear. In identified single neurons in a newly developed Drosophila AD model, in which Aβ accumulates intraneuronally, we found an age-dependent(More)
The electromechanochemical model has been reformulated to take account of the close connection between energy coupling and catalysis. In catalysis the protein is programmed to utilize thermal energy to produce local strains in the catalytic cavity and to generate conformational states that favor substrate --> product conversion. Energy coupling involves(More)
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