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Protoplasmic astrocytes are critically important to energy metabolism in the CNS. Our current understanding of the metabolic interactions between neurons and glia is based on studies using cultured cells, from which mainly inferential conclusions have been drawn as to the relative roles of neurons and glia in brain metabolism. In this study, we used(More)
Human astrocytes are larger and more complex than those of infraprimate mammals, suggesting that their role in neural processing has expanded with evolution. To assess the cell-autonomous and species-selective properties of human glia, we engrafted human glial progenitor cells (GPCs) into neonatal immunodeficient mice. Upon maturation, the recipient brains(More)
Neonatal engraftment by oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) permits the myelination of the congenitally dysmyelinated brain. To establish a potential autologous source of these cells, we developed a strategy by which to differentiate human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) into OPCs. From three hiPSC lines, as well as from human embryonic stem(More)
Congenitally hypomyelinated shiverer mice fail to generate compact myelin and die by 18-21 weeks of age. Using multifocal anterior and posterior fossa delivery of sorted fetal human glial progenitor cells into neonatal shiverer x rag2(-/-) mice, we achieved whole neuraxis myelination of the engrafted hosts, which in a significant fraction of cases rescued(More)
Experimental advances in the study of neuroglia signaling have been greatly accelerated by the generation of transgenic mouse models. In particular, an elegant manipulation that interferes with astrocyte vesicular release of gliotransmitters via overexpression of a dominant-negative domain of vesicular SNARE (dnSNARE) has led to documented astrocytic(More)
Sox2 is expressed by neural stem and progenitor cells, and a sox2 enhancer identifies these cells in the forebrains of both fetal and adult transgenic mouse reporters. We found that an adenovirus encoding EGFP placed under the regulatory control of a 0.4 kb sox2 core enhancer selectively identified multipotential and self-renewing neural progenitor cells in(More)
Glioblastoma multiform (GBM) remains clinical indication with significant "unmet medical need". Innovative new therapy to eliminate residual tumor cells and prevent tumor recurrences is critically needed for this deadly disease. A major challenge of GBM research has been the identification of novel molecular therapeutic targets and accurate(More)
Activated protein C (APC) is a protease with anticoagulant and cell-signaling activities. In the CNS, APC and its analogs with reduced anticoagulant activity but preserved cell signaling activities, such as 3K3A-APC, exert neuroprotective, vasculoprotective, and anti-inflammatory effects. Murine APC promotes subependymal neurogenesis in rodents in vivo(More)
Traditional methods of generating immortalized lines of both somatic cells and their progenitors have relied on the use of oncogenes. However, the resulting lines are typically anaplastic in vitro and tumorigenic in vivo, and hence of limited utility. The overexpression of telomerase, as mediated by the induced overexpression of human telomerase reverse(More)
Neonatally transplanted human glial progenitor cells (hGPCs) densely engraft and myelinate the hypomyelinated shiverer mouse. We found that, in hGPC-xenografted mice, the human donor cells continue to expand throughout the forebrain, systematically replacing the host murine glia. The differentiation of the donor cells is influenced by the host environment,(More)