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Atherosclerotic lesions develop in regions of arterial curvature and branch points, which are exposed to disturbed blood flow and have unique gene expression patterns. The cellular and molecular basis for atherosclerosis susceptibility in these regions is not completely understood. In the intima of atherosclerosis-predisposed regions of the wild-type(More)
RATIONALE Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease in which leukocytes and oxidatively modified lipids accumulate in the arterial intima. Previously, we showed that dendritic cells (DCs) accumulate preferentially in regions predisposed to atherosclerosis in the normal murine aortic intima. The function of these cells in atherogenesis is unknown. (More)
RATIONALE We described a critical role for the discoidin domain receptor (DDR)1 collagen receptor tyrosine kinase during atherosclerotic plaque development. Systemic deletion of Ddr1 in Ldlr(-/-) mice accelerated matrix accumulation and reduced plaque size and macrophage content. However, whether these effects reflected an independent role for macrophage(More)
The contribution of intimal cell proliferation to the formation of early atherosclerotic lesions is poorly understood. We combined 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine pulse labeling with sensitive en face immunoconfocal microscopy analysis, and quantified intimal cell proliferation and Ly-6C(high) monocyte recruitment in low density lipoprotein receptor-null mice. Cell(More)
Atherosclerosis develops in distinct regions of the arterial tree. Defining patterns and mechanisms of endothelial cell gene expression in different regions of normal arteries is key to understanding the initial molecular events in atherogenesis. In this study, we demonstrated that the expression of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS), an(More)
To elucidate the role of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS)-derived NO during mammalian embryogenesis, we assessed the expression of the eNOS gene during development. Using transgenic eNOS promoter/reporter mice (with beta-galactosidase and green fluorescent protein reporters), in situ cRNA hybridization, and immunohistochemistry to assess transcription,(More)
Abnormal humoral responses toward motor end plate constituents in muscle induce myasthenia gravis (MG). To study the etiology of this disease, and whether it could be induced by host defense molecules, we examined the consequences of interferon (IFN) gamma production within the neuromuscular junction of transgenic mice. The transgenic mice exhibited(More)
OBJECTIVE Hemodynamics plays a critical role in atherogenesis, but the association between flow pattern and preferential localization of lesion is not fully understood. We developed a mouse model of aortic valve regurgitation (AR) to change the aortic flow pattern and observed the effects on plaque formation. METHODS AND RESULTS High-frequency Doppler(More)
AIMS Retention of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol beneath the arterial endothelium initiates an inflammatory response culminating in atherosclerosis. Since the overlying endothelium is healthy and intact early on, it is likely that LDL passes through endothelial cells by transcytosis. However, technical challenges have made confirming this notion(More)
beta-Cell-targeted expression of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) leads to pancreatitis and immune sensitization to beta-cells. This transgenic model is used to explore the possible role of locally produced IFN-gamma in loss of tolerance to beta-cell-specific antigens in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). The aim of the present study was to test if(More)