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CONTEXT Most of what we know about antipsychotic drug effects is at the receptor level, distal from the neural system effects that mediate their clinical efficacy. Studying cerebral function in antipsychotic-naive patients with schizophrenia before and after pharmacotherapy can enhance understanding of the therapeutic mechanisms of these clinically(More)
OBJECTIVE The authors used resting-state functional connectivity MRI to evaluate brain networks in patients with refractory and nonrefractory major depressive disorder. METHOD In a cross-sectional study, 28 patients with refractory major depression, 32 patients with nonrefractory major depression, and 48 healthy comparison subjects underwent scanning(More)
BACKGROUND Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder that is characterized by recurrent intrusive thoughts, ideas or images and repetitive ritualistic behaviours. Although focal structural and functional abnormalities in specific brain regions have been widely studied in populations with OCD, changes in the functional(More)
BACKGROUND Impaired working memory is thought to be a core feature of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Previous imaging studies investigating working memory in ADHD have used tasks involving different cognitive resources and ignoring the categorical judgments about objects that are essential parts of performance in visual working memory(More)
Several functional MRI (fMRI) activation studies have highlighted specific differences in brain response in social anxiety disorder (SAD) patients. Little is known, so far, about the changes in the functional architecture of resting state networks (RSNs) in SAD during resting state. We investigated statistical differences in RSNs on 20 SAD and 20 controls(More)
Besides the enormous medical and economic consequences, national disasters, such as the Wenchuan 8.0 earthquake, also pose a risk to the mental health of survivors. In this context, a better understanding is needed of how functional brain systems adapt to severe emotional stress. Previous animal studies have demonstrated the importance of limbic,(More)
Treatment-refractory depression (TRD) represents a large proportion of the depressive population, yet has seldom been investigated using advanced imaging techniques. To characterize brain dysfunction in TRD, we performed resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) on 22 TRD patients, along with 26 matched healthy subjects and 22 patients who were depressed but(More)
BACKGROUND Many studies using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have demonstrated impaired white matter integrity in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), with significant results found in diverse brain regions. We sought to identify whether there are consistent changes of regional white matter integrity in patients with MDD, as shown by decreased(More)
BACKGROUND Spontaneous low-frequency fluctuations (LFF) in the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal have been shown to reflect cerebral spontaneous neural activity, and the present study attempts to explore the functional changes in the regional brain in patients with schizophrenia using the amplitude of(More)
Despite significant advances in the treatment of major depression, there is a high degree of variability in how patients respond to treatment. Approximately 70% of patients show some improvement following standard antidepressant treatment and are classified as having non-refractory depressive disorder (NDD), while the remaining 30% of patients do not(More)